“Nearly half of very preterm (VP) and extremely preterm (EP) infants suffers from minor disabilities, The paper overviews the literature dealing with motor problems other than cerebral palsy (CP) during infancy and preschool age. The term “”minor motor problems”" indicates a wide spectrum of motor disorders other than CP;”"minor”"does selleckchem not mean “”minimal”", as a relevant proportion of the preterm infants will develop academic and behavioural problems at school age. Early onset disorders consist of abnormal general movements (GMs), transient
dystonia and postural instability; these conditions usually fade during the first months. They were underestimated in the past; recently, qualitative assessment of GMs using Prechtl’s method has become a major item of the neurological examination. Late onset disorders include developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and/or minor neurological dysfunction (MND): both terms cover partly overlapping problems. Simple MND (MND-1) and complex MND (MND-2) can be identified and MND-2 gives a higher risk for learning and
behavioural disorders. A relationship between the quality of GMs and MND in childhood has been recently described. The Touwen infant neurological examination (TINE) can reliably detect neurological signs of MND even in infancy. However, the prognostic value of these disorders requires further investigations.”
“The prolonged residence of drug formulation in the nasal cavity is of utmost importance for intranasal drug delivery. The objective of VX-809 supplier the present investigation was to develop a mucoadhesive in situ gel with reduced nasal mucocilliary selleck clearance in order to improve the bioavailability of the antiemetic drug, metoclopramide hydrochloride. The in situ gelation upon contact with nasal
mucosa was conferred via the use of the thermogelling Pluronic flake 127 (18%). Mucoadhesion was modulated via the use of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (Na CMC) and sodium alginate (Na-alginate) whereas drug release was modified by varying concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000). The results revealed that the different mucoadhesives increased the gel viscosity but reduced its sol gel transition temperatures. The increase in viscosity was highest in formulations with Na-alginate and lowest in formulations with HPMC. PEG 6000 significantly decreased mucoadhesive strength of formula containing 0.3% HPMC (776.6 +/- 19.55 to 713.6 +/- 5.03), 0.2% Na CMC (656 +/- 11.13 to 575 +/- 9.07) and 0.2% Na-alginate (659 +/- 11.13 to 6183 +/- 9.45) whereas the gelation temperature increased by 3 to 4 degrees C. 100% of drug diffusion was found at four hours for formulation F5, F9, and F12. Formulation F5 showed maximum permeability (0.00949 +/- 0.00021 mg.cm/min) than other formulation containing PEG6000.