As the selleck inhibitor donor O141 strain was unable to produce CTXclass phage particles the DNA region was not transferable by phage transduction . Thus, natural transformation might also contribute to the dispersal of the CTX prophage among different V. Crenolanib molecular weight cholerae strains. The presented study takes advantage of the natural competence program and describes an optimized procedure to use natural competence as a common tool for the manipulation of Vibrio genomes. As Gulig et al. recently demonstrated that also other aquatic Vibrio species acquire natural competence upon growth on chitin surfaces  this method might be applicable to several Vibrio species. In this particular publication,
the authors also used PCR-derived donor DNA though transformants were often undetectable . PCR-derived donor DNA was used successfully as transforming material by Blokesch and Schoolnik in a report published two years earlier  as well as by Udden et al. in 2008 . In this present study, we showed that PCR-derived DNA could indeed serve as transforming material. Nonetheless, several other aspects needed to be optimized in order to adapt chitin-induced natural transformation as a standard protocol for manipulating Vibrio genomes. The
major points addressed were: the quantity and quality of the donor DNA; the chitin source; and the composition of the medium. We showed that donor DNA is readily degraded by the extracellular nuclease Dns  and that a higher click here amount of donor DNA can partly compensate for this (Fig. 1). Otherwise the usage of nuclease negative strains as recipients is recommended in case this does not interfere with consecutive experiments. Also the source of the donor DNA turned out to be rather important: in Fig. 2 we compared PCR-derived versus genomic DNA. It appeared as if the transformation
frequency was only one order of magnitude lower for PCR-derived donor DNA (200 ng; Fig. 2, lane 3) than for gDNA (2 μg; Fig. 2, lane 1). Though one has to consider that the amplified PCR fragment represents only 1/1000th of the full V. cholerae genome. Thus the PCR-fragment was provided in 100-fold molar excess. But as PCR-fragments can be acquired in large amounts this almost might not be an unconquerable problem. Several reasons could cause this relative low frequency of transformation, including DNA restriction/modification systems, increased sensitivity to degradation of the small DNA pieces and lack of homologous regions required for recombination. The group of Wilfried Wackernagel showed for another naturally competent bacterium, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, that equal transformation efficiencies were scored no matter whether the donor DNA was isolated from E. coli or A. calcoaceticus itself. The authors concluded that restriction/modification systems are not involved in the natural transformation process . In the case of V.