However, there were marked quantitative inter- and intra-species differences in kinetic parameters.
The mouse and the male rat exhibited V,,, and intrinsic metabolic clearance (CLint) values closest to those of human beings, suggesting that these species are the most suitable animal models to investigate MMDX biotransformation. A close inverse correlation was found between MMDX CLint and previously reported values of MMDX LD50 for animals of the species, sex and strain tested here, indicating that differences in the in vivo toxicity of MMDX are most probably due to sex- and species-related differences in the extent of PNU-159682 formation. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
3-MA ic50 Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a frequent type of cancer in Mexico. At the present time it represents the 19th cause of death in the population. Objective. To recognize the epidemiological. profile and the treatment results in a cohort of federal employees with HCC. Material and methods. We analyzed 47 consecutive cases with HCC CAL-101 diagnosis from January 2004 till December 2007. Twenty four demographic data, tumor staging, clinical, and biochemical variables were analyzed to identify parameters predicting survival by computing Kaplan-Mier and Mantel-Cox survival curves. Results. Patient reference increased 5% each year. The mean age was 60.4 years, 63.8% female sex, and 72.3% had cirrhosis, 44.7% had Hepatitis C infection. Most patients presented with advanced
disease: 55.3% were AJCC stage 3 and 21.3% stage 4, 51.1% were BCLC class D. Mean tumor size was 8.09 cm. Median survival. time from diagnosis was 122 days. Patients that did not receive treatment had a median survival of 70 days; the longest VX-680 survival of patients was of those that received transarterial, chemoembolization with a median of 707 days, followed by surgery with 683 days. Univariate analysis showed survival was associated to MELD score, AJCC and BCLC staging, creatinine level and ascites. Multivariate analysis showed tumor differentiation, AJCC staging and the choice of treatment to be related to the risk of death. Conclusion. An increase in the referral of HCC was demonstrated. Most patients had cirrhosis and HCV infection. Due to advance disease staging, TACE was the treatment that offered longest survival.”
“Objective: To investigate the use of goggles to increase periocular humidity and reduce dry eye symptoms.\n\nMethods: Noncontact lens wearing patients, previously diagnosed with and symptomatic for dry eye, were recruited.
The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary
diagnostic tool to evaluate cervical cancer health.”
“The use of paediatric multi-slice CT (MSCT) is rapidly increasing worldwide. As technology advances its www.selleckchem.com/products/MG132.html application in paediatric care is constantly expanding with an increasing need for radiation dose control and appropriate utilization. Recommendations on how and when to use CT for assessment of the paediatric urinary tract appear to be an important issue. Therefore the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) uroradiology learn more task force and European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) paediatric working groups created a proposal for
performing renal CT in children that has recently been published. The objective of this paper is to discuss paediatric urinary tract CT (uro-CT) in more detail and depth. The specific aim is not only to offer general recommendations on clinical indications and optimization processes of paediatric CT examination, but also to address various childhood characteristics and phenomena that facilitate understanding the different approach and use of uro-CT in children compared to adults. According to ALARA principles, paediatric uro-CT should only be considered for selected indications provided high-level comprehensive US is not conclusive and alternative non-ionizing techniques such as MR are not available or appropriate. Optimization of paediatric uro-CT protocols (considering lower age-adapted kV and mAs) is mandatory, and the
number of phases and acquisition series should be kept as few as possible. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, the risk of renal scarring in children with a urinary tract infection AR-13324 in vivo (UTI) has not been systematically studied.\n\nOBJECTIVE: To review the prevalence of acute and chronic renal imaging abnormalities in children after an initial UTI.\n\nMETHODS: We searched Medline and Embase for English-, French-, and Spanish-language articles using the following terms: “Technetium Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA),” “DMSA,” “dimercaptosuccinic,” “scintigra*,” “pyelonephritis,” and “urinary tract infection.” We included articles if they reported data on the prevalence of abnormalities on acute-phase (<= 15 days) or follow-up (>5 months) DMSA renal scans in children aged 0 to 18 years after an initial UTI. Two evaluators independently reviewed data from each article.\n\nRESULTS: Of 1533 articles found by the search strategy, 325 full-text articles were reviewed; 33 studies met all inclusion criteria.
The underlying mechanism appears to be upregulation of an enclogenous MAPK inhibitor-MKP-I-that constrains ERK signaling in asthmatic cells under strong mitogenic stimulation. This study suggests that the PI 3-kinase pathway may be an attractive target for reversing hyperplasia in asthma.”
“Objective: To investigate the association between various anthropometric indexes of obesity with arterial hypertension in elderly from Barbados (Bridgetown) selleck chemicals and Cuba (Havana). Design: Cross-sectional data were extracted from the Survey on Health, Aging and Well being in Latin America and the Caribbean (SABE). Sample Size: In Bridgetown
and Havana, respectively, 1508 and 1905 subjects (>= 60 years) were examined, and were selected by a controlled sampling design. Measurements: The occurrence of hypertension was assessed by self-report. Multiple measurements of adiposity were used including body mass index (BMI >= CP868596 28 kg/m(2)), waist hip ratio (WHR = > 0.95 men; > 0.80 women), waist to height ratio (W/ht. = > 0.50) and waist circumference – WC(L) (> 88 cm, women; > 102 cm, men) e WC(OK) (> 90.3 cm, women; > 91.3cm, men). Binary logistic regression analyses (Odds Ratio) were used to measure strengths of relationships. Results: In the elderly of Bridgetown,
the final design (adjusted for age, education, race, smoking, regular physical activity and diabetes) shows that, in men, WC(OK) and W/Ht were associated with hypertension, and in women, WC(L) and WC(OK) were the indexes associated. In the Cuban elderly, the final design shows that, with the exception of WHR, all indicators were associated with hypertension. WC(OK) and W/ht were the indexes
most strongly associated with the outcome. Conclusion: The explanatory power of anthropometric indicators when determining the outcome differed between men and women, as well as between cultural groups living in relative proximity (Barbadians and Cubans).”
“Purpose: Androgen Receptor Antagonist To determine if the sharing of oocytes by an infertile woman with an egg recipient for financial advantages has any negative impact on the success rate for the donor. Methods: A matched controlled study was performed comparing pregnancy outcome of women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) but sharing half of their eggs with a recipient vs women undergoing IVF-ET but not sharing oocytes. Results: Even though more women sharing oocytes deferred fresh transfer and cryopreserved the embryos because of a greater likelihood of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, there was no difference in pregnancy rates between the two groups after their first embryo transfer whether it was with fresh or frozen-thawed embryos. Conclusions: Sharing of oocytes by a woman undergoing IVF-ET does not jeopardize her chance of a successful outcome following embryo transfer.
Because these results were obtained in an older patient population, they may not necessarily apply to younger women.”
“DESIGN AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study
is to investigate the effects of music-therapy on labor pain and progress in parturient primipara. Music-therapy during labor increases tolerance to pain; decreasing anxiety, it increases parturition and uterus activity and shorten labor duration.\n\nSUBJECTS AND METHODS: The subjects of this research were 30 women, selected voluntarily and they have been put in two experimental and control group. This research has been conducted in the form of pre-test and post-test design. The experimental group listened to a relaxing music for 30 minutes in each hour for a two-hour period and the control group was not exposed to music during this period. For the Y 27632 purpose of gathering data in both groups, the pain scale (verbal, numeric and visual) was used to measure pain. The independent variable in this research is relaxing music and the dependent variables are the pain level and delivery progress.\n\nFINDINGS: The independent t for sensations of pain in the experimental and control group before intervention has been (p = 0.875) 0.601 in numeric and visual pain and (p < 0.01) 2.92 in verbal pain, and one hour after intervention, it has been (p < 0.0001) 8.527 in visual and numeric pain and
(p < 0.0001) 11.824 in verbal pain. Also, the equal value of independent t for the duration of delivery in control group before and after intervention shows that music has not had any effect on the rate of serotonin.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: The results of statistical see more analysis show the effect of music on the decrease of sensation of pain in the experimental group as compared with the control group.”
“Bacterial infections represent serious diseases in aquaculture. rapidly leading to fish death by septicemia. We investigated whether the electrotransfer of green fluorescent protein gene fusion epinecidin-1
(CMV-gfp-epi) DNA into zebrafish muscle could regulate the fish immune response and inhibit bacterial growth. Electroporation parameters such as the number of pulses, voltage, and amount of plasmid DNA were analyzed, and results demonstrated the greatest mRNA expression level of gfp-epi relative to selleck chemicals llc beta-actin was obtained with a pulse number of 4, a voltage strength of 100 V/cm, a concentration of DNA of 90 mu g/fish, and electroporation for 96 h. In addition, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter exhibited higher activity compared to the mylz promoter in muscle for electrotransfer in zebrafish. GFP fluorescence and gfp-epi mRNA expression in tissues after electroporation were also studied by a polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence microscopy. gfp-epi expression was significantly correlated with decreased bacterial numbers and immune-related gene expression.
This review article will try to answer some important questions for clinical practice: is the growing use of CRT-D devices supported by clinical evidence? Is the risk-benefit profile of CRT-D favourable in particular in mildly symptomatic patients?”
“This study evaluated the effects of
beta-irradiation on immunomodulating properties and structural changes of P-glucan. beta-Glucan solutions (10 mg/mL) were gamma-irradiated at 10, 30, and 50 kGy. Splenocyte proliferation and cytokine (interferon-gamma and interlukin-2) productions by gamma-irradiated beta-glucan were evaluated in in vivo and in vitro, and structural changes of beta-glucan were also determined after gamma-irradiation. gamma-Irradiation on beta-glucan at 50 kGy enhanced splenocyte Selleckchem AICAR proliferation and cytokine productions, (p<0.05) and cleft
glycosidic bonds of beta-glucan resulting in lower the molecular weight. These results indicate that the use of gamma-irradiation on beta-glucan may be useful for improving its immunological activity by lowering the molecular weight of beta-glucan.”
“Aim: The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alpha-2a in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients, nonresponders or relapsers after previous lamivudine or standard interferon therapy. Methods: This prospective, CYT387 JAK/STAT inhibitor national, multicentric, open label, not randomized trial enrolled 43 HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with detectable HBsAg for at least 6 months prior to screening, positive HBeAg and negative anti-H Be, serum HBV DNA levels of at least 500,000 copies/mL by PCR assay, elevated ALT up to 10 x ULN, no response or relapse after previous lamivudine or standard interferon therapy. All eligible patients received pegIFN alpha-2a 180 mu g weekly for 48 weeks with 24 weeks treatment free follow-up. There were two main efficacy
assessments: HBeAg seroconversion and viral supression below 100,000 copies/mL. Results: HBeAg seroconversion rate at the end-of-treatment was PLX3397 mw 4.65% (n=2; p<0.05) increasing to 11.62% 24 weeks after end of therapy (n=5; p<0.05). The rate of viral supression at levels below 100,000 copies/mL was 23.25% (n=10; p<0.05) at end-of-treatment, and 16.3% (n=7; p<0.05) at end of follow-up. ALT normalization was obtained in 20.9% (p<0.05) of patients at end-of-treatment, the percentage being significantly higher -37.2% (p<0.05) at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: Even in a difficult-to-treat patient population with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B, peginterferon alfa 2a proved to be efficient in a defined proportion of patients. The increase in HBeAg seroconversion rate from end-of-treatment (4.65%) to the end of follow-up period (11.62%) also proves the benefits of prolonged immunological effect of pegIFN alpha-2a.
“Foliar epidermal characters often species from the genus Cassia L. Emend. Gaertner, Senna Miller and Chamaecrista Moench found in South Western Nigeria were studied. The. aim was to establish some useful diagnostic features that may be employed in combination with other characters as intra or inter-specific or generic tools for their delimitation. Our results revealed exciting features that are helpful in the www.selleckchem.com/products/hsp990-nvp-hsp990.html identification of each species. These include guard
cell area, stomatal index and frequency, presence or absence of trichomes, types of trichomes, as well as their length on epidermal surfaces and wall types. These results, therefore suggest diagnostic features that were found on the epidermal surface that can be employed to justify the separation of the new genera Senna and Chamaecrista from their initial genus Cassia.”
“In the present paper, the recent development of new silyl chemistry based photoinitiating systems for sunlight induced polymerization is presented. The inherent issues of the effects of a low light intensity and oxygen inhibition are discussed. Some selected examples leading to tack free coatings in free radical photopolymerization (FRP) and cationic photopolymerization (CP) are provided. The use of the silyl radical chemistry to overcome
the O(2) inhibition is presented. The sunlight induced polymerization might be a promising way for practical low cost and environmentally friendly curing processes. The use of renewable AZ 628 molecular weight epoxy monomers (such as epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) or limonene dioxide (LDO)) in combination with a sunlight induced process also appears particularly worthwhile Selleckchem BIBF 1120 for green chemistry applications.”
“Recent studies show that the mutualistic role of lizards as pollinators and seed dispersers has been underestimated, with several ecological factors promoting such plant-animal interactions, especially on oceanic islands. Our aim is to provide a quantitative assessment of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms
with lizards in continental xeric habitats. We carried out focal observations of natural populations of Melocactus ernestii (Cactaceae) in the Caatinga, a Brazilian semiarid ecosystem, in order to record the frequency of visits, kind of resource searched and behaviour of visiting animals towards flowers and/or fruits. We made a new record of the lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus foraging on flowers and fruits of M.ernestii. During the search for nectar, T.semitaeniatus contacted the reproductive structures of the flowers and transported pollen attached to its snout. Nectar production started at 14:00h, with an average volume of 24.4l and an average concentration of solutes of 33%. Approximately 80% of the seeds of M.ernestii found in the faeces of T.semitaeniatus germinated under natural conditions. The roles of T.semitaeniatus as pollinator and seed disperser for M.
METHODS: Self-reported data on HRQOL PCI-34051 (physical and mental function, anxiety, depression, and fatigue) were analyzed for 319 survivors of aggressive NHL. Survivors 2 to 5 years postdiagnosis were selected from the Los Angeles County Cancer Registry. Bivariate and multivariable methods were used to assess the influence of sociodemographic, clinical, and cognitive health-appraisal factors on survivors’ HRQOL. RESULTS: After accounting for other covariates, marital status was associated with all HRQOL outcomes (P < .05).
Younger survivors reported worse mental function and higher levels of depression, anxiety, and fatigue (P < .01). Survivors who had more comorbid conditions or lacked private health insurance reported worse physical and mental function
and higher levels of depression and fatigue (P < .05). Survivors who experienced a recurrence reported worse physical function and higher levels of depression and Pexidartinib clinical trial fatigue (P < .05). With the exception of a nonsignificant association between perceived control and physical function, greater perceptions of personal control and health competence were associated significantly with more positive HRQOL outcomes (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicated that survivors of aggressive NHL who are younger, are unmarried, lack private insurance, or experience greater illness burden may be at risk for poorer HRQOL. Cognitive health-appraisal factors were strongly related
to HRQOL, suggesting potential benefits of interventions focused on these mutable factors for this population. Cancer 2013. (C) 2012 American Cancer Society.”
“We retrospectively examined the efficacy and safety of S-1 alone or S-1 plus cisplatin (SP) for elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer because the benefit of adding SB273005 chemical structure cisplatin in these patients still remains unclear.\n\nAmong 175 patients aged 70 years or older who received S-1 alone or SP as a first-line therapy between April 2000 and November 2010 at our institution, 104 patients who met eligibility criteria were examined. We investigated safety and efficacy of S-1 and SP.\n\nAmong these 104 patients, 73 patients received S-1 and 31 patients received SP. The median age was 75 years in the S-1 group and 74 years in the SP group. The response rate was 26.3 % in the S-1 group and 44.0 % in the SP group. Major grade 3 or higher adverse events were observed as follows (S-1 vs. SP): nausea (1.4 vs. 16.1 %), anorexia (16.4 vs. 41.9 %), neutropenia (4.1 vs. 35.5 %), and febrile neutropenia (0 vs. 9.7 %). The median overall survival (OS) was 10.4 months in the S-1 group and 17.8 months in the SP group. Treatment of SP and histology of intestinal type were detected as independent, good prognostic factors in multivariate analysis.\n\nSP might improve OS with some added toxicity compared to S-1 alone in elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer.
\n\nConclusion: The present study demonstrates the anticonvulsant effect of acute pioglitazone on PTZ-induced seizures in mice. This effect was reversed by PPAR-gamma antagonist, and both a specific- and a non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, and augmented by nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine. These results support that the anticonvulsant effect of pioglitazone is mediated through PPAR-gamma receptor-mediated pathway and also, at least partly, through the nitric oxide pathway. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
studied the population and feeding ecology of the GW2580 kelp crab Taliepus marginatus in subtidal kelp forests dominated by either of two morphologically different kelp species (Macrocystis pyrifera or Lessonia trabeculata) in northern Chile. The sizes and abundances of T. marginatus differed between the two kelp habitats. Kelp crabs learn more were more abundant in the M. pyrifera forest than in the L. trabeculata forest. Size-frequency distributions showed that juvenile and immature crabs were
more common in the M. pyrifera forest than in the L. trabeculata forest, where reproductive adults predominated. The smaller crabs in the M. pyrifera habitat also consumed a higher proportion of kelp tissues than the larger crabs in the L. trabeculata habitat, which had a higher proportion of animal food in their diet. In both kelp forests, individuals of T. marginatus showed a similar pattern of nocturnal feeding over a 24-h period, consuming more food at night than during the day. The more complex and dense forests of M. pyrifera appear MX69 to present better nursery habitats for juvenile kelp crabs than the more open and less dense forests dominated by L. trabeculata. These results suggest that the role of the two kelp habitats for T. marginatus varies during the life cycle of the kelp crabs, with
M. pyrifera tending to have nursery function and L. trabeculata being more suitable as a reproductive habitat.”
“Background: Raltegravir has demonstrated good antiviral activity and safety profile in twice-daily (bid) dosing. However, its long terminal elimination half-life might allow once-daily (qd) administration. Methods: Consecutive HIV-infected individuals at our clinic under protease inhibitor (PO-based regimens with plasma HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL for > 24 weeks were invited to replace Pls with raltegravir. Patients were randomly assigned to raltegravir 800 mg qd, 400 mg bid, or twice daily for the first 3 months and then once daily. Results: A total of 222 patients completed 24 weeks of follow-up on raltegravir (149 once-daily arm, 35 twice-daily arm, and 38 twice-daily to once-daily arm). At inclusion, mean CD4+ count was 574 +/- 308 cells/mu L. Within 24 weeks, 13 (5.9%) patients experienced virological failure: 12 (6.4%) in the once-daily arms, and 1 (2.9%) in the twice-daily arm (P = .18).
Seven patients achieved complete response (CR), 11 had PD, and one had no more therapy. Six patients who achieved CR survived without evidence of disease and four of them underwent high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) followed by stem cell transplantation (SCT). However, 11 patients who failed to obtain CR eventually died of their disease. Five-year overall survival (OS) was 31.6 +/- 10.7%. OS of patients with late RL was
superior to that of patients with early RL (57.1 +/- 18.7%, vs. 16.7 +/- 10.8%, p=0.014). Achievement of CR after reinduction had significant OS (p smaller than 0.001). OS for patients who were transplanted NCT-501 in vivo was superior (p smaller than 0.01). In multivariate analysis, achievement of CR after reinduction chemotherapy showed an association with improved OS (p=0.05). Conclusion Late RL and chemotherapy-sensitive patients have the Sonidegib solubility dmso chance to achieve continuous CR using HDC/SCT, whereas patients who are refractory to retrieval therapy have poor prognosis. Therefore, novel salvage strategy is required for improvement of survival for this small set of patients.”
“Pathogenic microbes often modulate phytohormone physiology in the host to their advantage. We previously showed that
the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrB perturbs hormone signaling, as exemplified by upregulated expression of jasmonic acid response genes, and enhances plant susceptibility. Here we show that these effects of AvrB require the Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase MAP kinase 4 (MPK4), HSP90 chaperone components, and the AvrB-interacting protein, RIN4. AvrB interacts with MPK4 and the HSP90 chaperone, and AvrB induces MPK4 activation in a manner promoted by HSP90; RIN4 likely acts downstream of MPK4. These findings link Arabidopsis proteins MPK4, HSP90, and RIN4 into a pathway that P. syringae AvrB activates for the benefit of the bacterium, perturbing hormone signaling and enhancing plant susceptibility.”
“Direct transport of recombinant protein from cytosol to extracellular medium offers great advantages, such as high specific activity and a simple purification step. This work presents an investigation
on the potential of an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) AZD2171 cost transporter system, the hemolysin transport system, for efficient protein secretion in Escherichia coli (E. coli). A higher secretory production of recombinant cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) was achieved by a new plasmid design and subsequently by optimization of culture conditions via central composite design. An improvement of at least fourfold extracellular recombinant CGTase was obtained using the new plasmid design. The optimization process consisted of 20 experiments involving six star points and six replicates at the central point. The predicted optimum culture conditions for maximum recombinant CGTase secretion were found to be 25.76 mu M IPTG, 1.0% (w/v) arabinose and 34.7A degrees C post-induction temperature, with a predicted extracellular CGTase activity of 68.
We present here initial results to show that NO can be generated in the region around F1 in the right parietal ganglion and that NO and cGMP directly hyperpolarize this neuron. For example, application of the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine (SNAP; 200 mu M) can cause a mean hyperpolarization of 41.7 mV, while 2 mM 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8-bromo-cGMP) produced S3I-201 JAK/STAT inhibitor a mean hyperpolarization of 33.4 mV.
Additionally, pre-exposure to NO-donors or cGMP appears to significantly reduce or even eliminates the normal hyperpolarizing K+-mediated response to dopamine (DA) by this neuron; 200 mu M SNAP abolishes a standard response to 0.5 mu M DA while 1 mM 8-bromo-cGMP reduces it 62 %.”
“AasP, an autotransporter serine protease of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, has been shown to be expressed in necrotic porcine lung Smoothened inhibitor tissue. Based on the hypothesis that AasP might play an important role in A. pleuropneumoniae adhesion and virulence by processing other surface-associated proteins, the predicted catalytic site of AasP was deleted and the isogenic mutant, AP76 Delta aasP, was compared to
the wild-type strain in a biofilm assay as well as an aerosol infection model. AP76 Delta aasP showed increased adherence compared to the wild-type strain under standard culturing conditions as well as under NAD restriction. No significant differences between AP76 wild-type and AP76 Delta aasP were observed upon experimental infection of pigs, indicating that AasP does not play a crucial role in A. pleuropneumoniae virulence. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Aim Liver cirrhosis (LC) is the end stage of chronic liver disease. No definitive pharmacological treatment is currently available. We previously reported that thrombopoietin (TPO) promoted liver regeneration and improved liver cirrhosis by increasing platelet count. TPO is therefore considered to be a therapeutic
agent for LC; however, it is unclear whether TPO has proliferative effects on hepatocellular Apoptosis inhibitor carcinoma (HCC), which arises frequently in cirrhotic livers. In this study, we examined the effects of TPO on growth of HCC. Methods Expression of the TPO receptor, myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) was examined in various liver tumor cell lines and liver cell types. In an in vitro study, the effects of TPO on signal transduction, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were examined in Huh7 cells, in which MPL is highly expressed. In an in vivo study, we subcutaneously transplanted Huh7 cells into nude mice that were divided into a TPO-treated group and a control group, and the tumor volume of each group was measured. Results MPL was expressed strongly in hepatocytes but not in other cell types. Among liver tumor cell lines, Huh7 showed the highest expression of MPL.