This PF-03084014 ic50 review summarizes

the role of PPAR alpha and PGC-1 alpha in myocardial metabolism in the normal heart and in the diabetic heart.”
“Purpose: To introduce transurethal partial cystectomy with a 2013 nm thulium laser as a treatment for paraganglioma of the urinary bladder in adults.

Patients and Methods: Three patients with pheochromocytomas were treated transurethrally with a 2013 nm thuliumlaser under general anesthesia. A 2013 nm thuliumlaser was used to incise the full-thickness bladder wall around the tumors. The entire bladder wall was peeled between the detrusor muscle layer and outer connective tissues. Tumors with full-thickness detrusor muscle layers at the base were removed together. Intraoperative fluctuation

of blood pressure, preoperative values of 24-hour urine catecholamine (CA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), Torin 2 in vitro and postoperative complications were observed, and postoperative followtwoups were performed.

Results: All operations were successful. Operative time was 25 to 32 minutes. Perioperative blood pressure was stable in two cases while blood pressure fluctuated in the third case. When the entire tumor and the full-thickness bladder wall at the base were freed, blood pressure reverted to stability. All values of 24-hour urine CA and VMA were within normal limits postoperatively. Patients were followed for 7 to 9 months postoperatively with no recurrence. This series included highly selected patients who were treated by a single senior surgeon who is rich in experience in performing 2013 nm thulium laser procedures.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of a 2013 nm thulium laser used to treat bladder pheochromocytoma. It can be applied to precisely vaporize and incise the full-thickness bladder wall and cut down the blood supply of the tumor, then peel it while blood pressure remains stable, thus completing partial cystectomy for

bladder pheochromocytoma safely.”
“A series of new N-substituted derivatives learn more of 5-benzyl-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole-2yl-2 ”-sulfanyl acetamide (6a-n) were synthesized in three phases. The first phase involved the sequentially converting phenyl acetic acid into ester, hydrazide and finally cyclized in the presence of CS, to afford 5-benzyl-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole-2-thiol. In the second phase N-substituted-2-bromoacetamides were prepared by reacting substituted amines with bromoacetyl bromide in basic media. In the third phase, 5-benzyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol was stirred with N-substituted-2-bromoacetamides in the presence of N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) and sodium hydride (NaH) to get the target compounds. Spectral techniques were used to confirm the structures of synthesized compounds.

Three reconstructive strategies were used: intussusception of the

Three reconstructive strategies were used: intussusception of the allograft-prosthesis-composite (Type I), strut-like coaptation (Type II), and side-to-side contact between the cortices of the allograft-prosthetic composite and the host bone (Type III). The outcomes

that were examined included the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), radiographic union, and overall revision and complication rates.

Results: The mean MEPS improved from LGK-974 concentration 30 points preoperatively to 84 points at the time of follow-up. Ninety-two percent of the allograft-prosthetic composites incorporated. There were eight major and four minor complications in nine patients, leading to nine reoperations in six patients. Complications included infection (three), fracture (three), nonunion (one), malunion (one), skin necrosis (one), triceps insufficiency/weakness (two), and ulnar

nerve paresthesia (one). Four of the twenty-five patients had definitive resection arthroplasty, one had osteosynthesis, and one had a successful revision, so twenty-one (84%) of the twenty-five had a functional elbow. Five of seven infected joints were salvaged with staged allograft-prosthesis-composite procedures.

Conclusions: Larger graft-host contact areas MG-132 in the three types of allograft-prosthetic composites provided good functional outcomes and a high rate of union compared with prior experience and resection arthroplasty. Allograft-prosthetic composites can be a safe, reliable option with an acceptable complication rate for revision total elbow arthroplasty.”
“Background and aim. Although many studies report benefits of low glycemic diets, the clinical effects as a whole are mixed. The study aim was to compare a low glycemic load (LGL) diet versus a low-fat diet in a trial

with a moderately intense dietary intervention in subjects with varying degrees of metabolic Vorasidenib chemical structure syndrome.

Methods and results. Men and women aged 30-65 years, with a BMI of 28-40 kg/m(2) (28-35 for women) and at least one criterion of metabolic syndrome were randomized to the two diets. A total of 202 subjects were included, of which 126 (62%) had metabolic syndrome (>= 3 criteria). The completion rate was 81%. At 3 months, weight loss was greater in the LGL group (-4.8 +/- 3.9 kg versus -3.8 +/- 3.5 kg; P = 0.06) compared to the low-fat group. At 1 year, however, weight loss was similar in both groups (-4 0 +/- 5 5 kg versus -4 3 +/- 6 2 kg; n.s.), but waist circumference reduction was less in the LGL group (-3.9 +/- 5.3 cm versus -5.8 +/- 6.8 cm; P = 0.03). In contrast, diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly more in the LGL group (-4.0 +/- 8 7 mmHg versus -1.1 +/- 8.5 mmHg; P = 0.02).

(C) 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases Published

(C) 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose The aim of this study is to test the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) in Iranian candidates for liver transplantation.

Method One hundred and fifty-five consecutive adult patients awaiting liver transplantation

Entrectinib Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor completed the Persian version of CLDQ and the short-form health survey (SF-36). The etiology of cirrhosis, Child Pugh classification and Model for End stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were taken from medical records.

Results The scaling success rate for convergent validity was 100% for all domains, and the success rate for item discriminant validity was 95.8% (139/145). The internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) for the domains

ranged from 0.65 to 0.89. Multitrait-multimethod correlation matrix and factor analysis revealed that the CLDQ and SF-36 measure different constructs of quality of life.

Conclusion The Persian version of the CLDQ, a disease-specific questionnaire for measuring health-related Pexidartinib inhibitor quality of life, is accepted by liver transplantation candidates with adequate reliability and validity. There is no significant correlation of Child Pugh classification and MELD score with quality of life.”
“A thermoformable starch-graft-polycaprolactone biocomposite was prepared by initiating ring-open polymerization of caprolactone monomer onto starch under microwave irradiation. In this case, the thermoplastic and hydrophobic modification of starch could be realized by one-pot grafting PCL, find more where the grafted PCL chains acted as the “”plasticizing”" tails of thermoforming and as the hydrophobic species of water-resistance. The resultant biocomposites were injection-molded as the sheets and their structure and properties were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, contact angle measurement, and tensile testing. In this case, the grafted PCL chains entangled each other, and hence contributed to the

strength and elongation of biocomposites. This work provided a simple strategy of one-pot thermoplastic and hydrophobic modification of starch, and may be applied in a Continuous process of modification, compounding, and molding. Meanwhile, the resultant biocomposites containing starch are believed to have a great potential application as an environment-friendly and/or biomedical material. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113: 2973-2979,2009″
“A rare case of peritonitis due to beta-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae is described in an 18-year-old male undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis. The infection was probably of respiratory origin. Two strains of H. influenzae cultured from peritoneal fluid and a nasal swab were indistinguishable by molecular methods.

Results: IS1395-associated banding patterns of the isolates were

Results: IS1395-associated banding patterns of the isolates were not highly Duvelisib polymorphic; the RFLP patterns displayed several bands in common. Nevertheless, 44 of the 52 isolates were clearly distinguishable from each other. Only eight strains (15.4%) occurred in four clusters of two identical clones, one of which comprised two isolates obtained from one patient with a 12-month interval. The remaining six patients with clustered strains showed no apparent epidemiologic links with the other patients from the same

cluster, and they were most likely infected by the same environmental source. No noticeable difference in RFLP pattern or IS1395 copy number between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains was shown. A high proportion (84.6%) of strains resistant to at least one drug was found, and 7.7% were resistant to more than three drugs.

Conclusions: The stability and utility of IS1395 for further detailed epidemiological investigations of M. xenopi

was confirmed and extended. (C) 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Insulin is a polypeptide hormone and usually administered for treatment of diabetic patients subcutaneously. VX-661 purchase The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of enteric nanoparticles for oral delivery of insulin. Nanoparticles were formed by complex coacervation method using chitosan of various molecular weights. Nanoparticles were characterized by drug loading efficiency determination, particle size analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Zeta potential and CD spectroscopy (Circular Dichrosim). The in vitro release studies were performed at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The drug loaded

nanoparticles showed 3.38% of entrapment, loading efficiency of 30.56% and mean particle size of 199 nm. SEM studies showed that the nanoparticles are non-spherical. Zeta potential increased with increasing molecular weight of chitosan. The CD spectroscopy profiles indicated that the nano-encapsulation process find more did not significantly disrupt the internal structure of insulin; additionally, pH-sensitivity of nanoparticles was preserved and the insulin release was pH-dependent. These results suggest that the complex coacervation process using chitosan and Eudragit L100-55 polymers may provide a useful approach for entrapment of hydrophilic polypeptides without affecting their conformation.”
“QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: The A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus is a highly contagious pathogen which caused the 2009 influenza pandemic. The virus is known to affect mainly younger people and may be a problem in crowded living conditions. The aim of the study was to describe a major A(H1N1)pdm09 outbreak in a Swiss military boot camp and to develop suggestions for similar future situations.

Mean PBDE concentrations ranged from 6 4 ng/g lipid

Mean PBDE concentrations ranged from 6.4 ng/g lipid Selleckchem Elacridar weight (1w) in squid to I IS ng/g 1w in flounder. BDE 47 was the dominant congener, followed by BDE 100. Mean levels of MeO-PBDEs (sum of congeners 2′-MeO-BDE 68 and 6-MeO-BDE 47) were as high as 110 ng/g lw in tailor, with a slight dominance of 2′-MeO-BDE 68. Polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivates (PBHDs), another class of naturally-produced compounds, were found at variable concentrations and ranged from 4.7 ng/g lw in fanbelly and 146 ng/g 1w in tailor. The tribrominated PBHD isomer dominated in the samples, except for luderick and squid. The lower levels of PBDEs found in luderick

from the harbour compared to those obtained from the upper Parramatta River indicated a terrestrial (anthropogenic) origin of PBDEs, while the higher levels of MeO-PBDEs and PBHDs in the samples from the harbour confirmed the learn more marine (natural) origin of these compounds. The highest trophic magnification factor (TMF) was found for sum PBDEs (3.9), while TMFs for sum MeO-PBDEs and sum PBHDs were 2.9 and 3.4, respectively. This suggests that biomagnification occurs in the studied aquatic food chain

for anthropogenic brominated compounds, but also for the naturally-produced organobromines. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To investigate the effect of temperature on first trimester free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in serum during transportation. Methods: Maternal blood was collected from 30 East Asian women attending for Down syndrome screening at the

primary obstetrical site. The extracted serum was split into two equal aliquots, placed in identical thermally insulated pouches with a temperature data logger and shipped to the screening laboratory. An 800 g frozen ice pack was placed in one of the pouches. Free beta-hCG and PAPP-A levels were determined in the ‘Cooled’ and ‘Uncooled’ serum samples using a DELFIA (R) Xpress analyzer. Oligomycin A datasheet The proportion of ‘Uncooled’ samples not within 5% of the ‘Cooled’ sample marker level was assessed. Results: The median age of subjects was 36 years, half were nulliparous and all were non-smokers. The assay stability ranged from 2.38% to 4.41%. The median total transport time from the obstetrical site to the laboratory was 17.37 h. Median recorded temperatures within the ‘Cooled’ pouch were significantly lower throughout the transportation of the samples (p < 0.0001). The median percentage change of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations in ‘Uncooled’ samples relative to ‘Cooled’ samples were 2.72% (range 0.27-7.64%) and 1.10% (range 0.03%-4.29%), respectively. Free beta-hCG concentrations differed by greater than 5% in eleven (37%) subjects.

“Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) and hemicrania c

“Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) and hemicrania continua (HC) are relatively rare but clinically rather well-defined primary headaches. LB-100 manufacturer Despite

the existence of clear-cut diagnostic criteria (The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition – ICHD-II) and several therapeutic guidelines, errors in workup and treatment of these conditions are frequent in clinical practice. We set out to review all available published data on mismanagement of TACs and HC patients in order to understand and avoid its causes. The search strategy identified 22 published studies. The most frequent errors described in the management of patients with TACs and HC are: referral to wrong type of specialist, diagnostic delay, misdiagnosis, and the use of treatments without overt indication. Migraine with and without aura, trigeminal neuralgia, sinus infection, dental pain and temporomandibular

dysfunction are the disorders most frequently overdiagnosed. Even when the clinical picture is clear-cut, TACs and HC are frequently not recognized and/or mistaken for other disorders, not only by general physicians, dentists and ENT surgeons, but also by neurologists ABT-263 and headache specialists. This seems to be due to limited knowledge of the specific characteristics and variants of these disorders, and it results in the unnecessary prescription of ineffective and sometimes invasive treatments which may have negative consequences for patients. Greater knowledge of and education about these disorders, among both primary care physicians and headache

specialists, might contribute to improving the quality of life of TACs and HC patients.”
“The ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/organoclay nanocomposites were prepared in decalin with various organoclay contents (0, 1, 2, 3, NCT-501 Metabolism inhibitor and 5 pphr). Transmission electron micrographic images and X-ray diffraction results showed that the organoclay was exfoliated and well dispersed in UHMWPE matrix. The rheological properties were measured at various temperatures (110, 130, and 150 degrees C) in a broad range of shear rate (10(-1)-10(2)) at a gel concentration of 6 wt %. The result showed that the viscosity increased with the addition and increasing organoclay content. Thermal stability (thermogravimetric analysis) and crystallinity (differential scanning calorimeter) of UHMWPE increased with increasing organoclay content implying that the organoclay functioned as barrier and nucleating agent. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 1529-1534, 2009″
“Background: The gametocyte sex ratio of Plasmodium falciparum, defined as the proportion of gametocytes that are male, may influence transmission but little is known of the effects of mefloquine or artesunate-mefloquine on gametocyte sex ratio and on the sex ratio of first appearing gametocytes.

Methods: 350 children with uncomplicated P.

373; p < 0 001) and hs-CRP (R2 change = 0 045; p = 0 049) were

373; p < 0.001) and hs-CRP (R2 change = 0.045; p = 0.049) were the independent predictors of fasting serum leptin concentration.


Serum leptin concentration correlates positively with metabolic syndrome in renal transplant recipients.”
“Background: The reported revision rates for cemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasties have varied widely. The effect of implant selection, patient characteristics, and AZD0156 solubility dmso surgeon characteristics on revision risk has not been evaluated fully. The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of these variables on the

risk for aseptic revision arthroplasty.

Methods: We identified all cemented primary unicompartmental knee arthroplasties performed in our health-care system from 2002 to ERK inhibitor 2009 (median follow-up time = 2.6 years) to assess the risk for aseptic revision. A multivariate marginal Cox proportional-hazards model with robust standard errors (to adjust for the nesting of surgical cases within surgeons) was used to calculate the differential risk for revision of implants after adjusting for surgeon and hospital volume of unicompartnnental knee arthroplasties performed; surgeon experience with

unicompartmental knee arthroplasties at the time of surgery; surgeon fellowship training; and patient age, sex, weight, body mass index, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score.

Results: A total of 1746 unicompartmental knee arthroplasties were identified. The overall revision rate during the study period was 4.98% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0% to 6.1%). In a multivariate Cox model, the hazard ratio (HR) for aseptic revision relative to a modern, fixed, metal-backed tibial bearing was significantly higher for an all-polyethylene tibial tray (HR = 3.85, 95% CI = 1.54 to 9.63, p = 0.004) but not significantly higher for a mobile-bearing implant (HR = 2.42, 95% CI = 0.55 to 10.65, p = 0.242) or an older-design, fixed, metal-backed bearing (HR = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.67 to 5.33, p = 0.23). Younger age was associated with increased risk (age less than fifty-five years compared with more than sixty-five years: HR = 4.83, 95% CI = 2.60 to 8.96, p < 0.001), and a higher ASA score

compared with >= 3 points: HR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.32 to 0.93, p = 0.027) and a greater Kinase inhibitor Library mean yearly surgeon volume of unicompartmental knee arthroplasties (twelve or fewer compared with more than twelve: HR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.28 to 3.74, p = 0.004) were associated with reduced risk.

Conclusions: Implant selection can have a considerable effect on the risk for aseptic revision following a cemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, as can patient and surgeon factors. Therefore, the variation among risk estimates reported in the literature for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty revision may be explained by differences in patient characteristics and implant selection as well as the surgeons’ yearly volume of unicompartmental knee arthroplasties.

7 +/- 0 1 MPa, p=0 349) In addition, body mass index and menopau

7 +/- 0.1 MPa, p=0.349). In addition, body mass index and menopausal status were not associated with these biomechanical properties.

Conclusions Age may influence the uniaxial mechanical TH-302 supplier behavior of the human female bladder.”
“Renal transplant recipients (RTR) have a 50-200-fold higher risk for nonmelanoma-skin cancer (NMSC) causing high rates of morbidity

and sometimes mortality. Cohort-studies gave evidence that a sirolimus-based immunosuppression may inhibit skin tumor growth. This single-center, prospective, assessor-blinded, randomized trial investigated if switching to sirolimus treatment inhibits the progression of premalignancies and moreover how many new NMSC occur compared to continuation of the original immunosuppressive therapy. Forty-four RTR (mean age 59.9 years, mean duration of immunosuppression 229.5 months)

with skin lesions were randomized to sirolimus or continuation of their original immunosuppression. Blinded dermatological assessment at month 6 and 12 by the same dermatologist evaluated the clinical change compared to baseline. Biopsy was performed in suspected malignancy. Already the 6-month-assessment showed significant superiority of sirolimus-therapy: a stop of progression, even regression of preexisting premalignancies (p < 0.0005). This effect was increased at month 12 (p < 0.0001). Nine patients developed histologically confirmed NMSC: one in the sirolimus group, eight in the control group, p = 4EGI-1 nmr 0.0176. Sirolimus-based immunosuppression in RTR, even when established many years after transplantation, can delay the development of premalignancies, induce regression of preexisting lesions and decelerate

the incidence of new NMSC.”
“Background: Presumptive treatment of malaria is common practice in malaria endemic resource-limited settings. With the changing epidemiology of malaria and the introduction of artemisinin-based Saracatinib Angiogenesis inhibitor combination therapy (ACT), there is increasing need for parasite-based malaria case management to prevent unnecessary use of anti-malarial medicines, improve patient care in parasite-positive patients and identify parasite-negative patients in whom another diagnosis must be sought. Although parasitological confirmation by microscopy or alternatively by malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is recommended in all patients suspected of malaria before treatment, gaps remain in the implementation of this policy in resource-limited settings. There is need to evaluate the use of RDTs among highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-treated people living with HIV (PLHIV).

Dynamic exercise caused a significant increase in red blood cell

Dynamic exercise caused a significant increase in red blood cell count (Standardbred trotters: P = 0.0012), haemoglobin concentration (jumping horses: P = 0.001; Standardbred trotters: P = 0.01), haematocrit percentage (Standardbred trotters: P = 0.005), neutrophil percentage (jumping horses: P = 0.0003), lymphocyte percentage (jumping horses: P = 0.0003), monocyte percentage (Standardbred JPH203 molecular weight trotters: P = 0.0008), lymphocyte beta-AR numbers (jumping horses: P = 0.01; Arabian

Endurance horses: P = 0.016; Standardbred trotters: P = 0.05), plasma adrenaline concentration (Standardbred trotters: P = 0.0001) and plasma noradrenaline levels (Standardbred trotters: P = 0.003). It is concluded that acute increases in plasma catecholamine concentrations depended on the exercise performed and may induce up-regulation of beta-AR in equine lymphocytes. However, the exact mechanism of beta-AR up-regulation still remains unclear. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Childhood obesity is a common and complex problem that may persist in adulthood. It

may present as a component of genetic syndromes associated with dysmorphic features, developmental abnormalities, mental retardation and/or learning disabilities and often neuroendocrine dysfunction. Although the chromosomal abnormalities of these rare syndromes are already known, the specific genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the distinct phenotypes and obesity still remain unclarified. New exciting genetic selleck chemical pathways contributing HDAC 抑制�?review to syndrome phenotype and leading to obesity have recently been identified. Prader-Willi syndrome is caused by loss of expression of the C/D box HBII-84 cluster of snoRNAs. Dysfunction of the primary cilium, thought to have important signalling functions, may contribute to disease phenotype and obesity in Bardet-Biedl, Alstrom and Carpenter syndromes. In this mini-review current knowledge of clinical and genetic characteristics is summarized

as well as the pathogenesis of these syndromes with special emphasis on the pathogenesis of obesity.”
“Rectal temperature measurement is an essential part of physical examination of cattle and some physiological experiments. Modern digital thermometers are often used to measure rectal temperatures by students; this study describes their reliability and appropriate use. Students measured rectal temperature on 53 occasions using their personal digital thermometer and techniques gained from previous instruction, rectal temperature was also measured by an experienced person using a Cornell mercury thermometer completely inserted in the rectum. Cornell mercury thermometers values were 38.95 +/- 0.05 degrees C (mean +/- 1 SE, n = 53). Student rectal temperature measurements using their initial technique were nearly 0.5 degrees C lower, 38.46 +/- 0.07 degrees C. After receiving instruction to insert the digital thermometer to the window, student obtained values were 38.77 +/- 0.

These techniques revealed that Pt ALD does not nucleate and grow

These techniques revealed that Pt ALD does not nucleate and grow immediately on the Al2O3 ALD substrates. There was negligible Pt ALD during GW4064 in vitro the first 38 ALD cycles. The Pt ALD growth rate then increased substantially during the next 12 ALD cycles. Subsequently, the Pt ALD growth rate reached a steady state linear growth regime for > 50 ALD cycles. These measurements suggest that the Pt ALD first forms a number of nanoclusters that grow slowly during

the first 38 ALD cycles. These islands then merge during the next 12 cycles and yield a steady state Pt ALD growth rate of similar to 0.05 nm/cycle for > 50 ALD cycles. The Pt ALD film at the onset of the steady state linear growth regime was approximately 2-3 nm in thickness. However, the SEM images of these Pt ALD films appeared corrugated and wormlike. These films also had a density that was only 50-70% of bulk Pt. Film densities that were consistent with bulk Pt were not observed until after > 100 ALD cycles when the Pt ALD films appeared much smoother and were 4-5 nm in thickness. The Pt ALD nucleation rate could be enhanced somewhat using different O-2 plasma parameters. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3555091]“
“Series check details of polyacrylamide hydrogels with high mechanical strength were synthesized using hydrophilic reactive microgels (HRM) with C=C double bonds as crosslinkers. The hydrophilic

microgels were prepared by inverse emulsion photopolymerization and then were chemical modified by N-methylolacrylamide

(NMA) to obtain HRM. Chemical-modifying conditions affecting the HRM double bound content were investigated. The maximum double-bond content was 1.82% at the optimum conditions of NMA 8 g, hydrochloric acid 0.8 mL, reaction temperature 60 degrees C, and time 4 h. The mechanical properties of the hydrogels were significantly enhanced by using HRM as crosslinkers instead of the conventional crosslinkers. These HRM hydrogels were studied by varying such parameters as HRM content, monomer concentration, HRM double- bond content, and the initiator dosage. (C) 2011 BI 10773 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 2594-2603, 2011″
“The current study investigates the magnetic properties of the GdxZn1-xO, with x 0: 0625 and 0.0185, doped semiconductor using the full potential (linearized) augmented plane wave plus local orbital method. We show that in contrast to the findings of Shi et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023910 (2009)], the implementation of the Hubbard U parameter to the Gd f states favors an antiferromagnetic phase in both wurtzite GdO and GdxZn1-xO. Spin polarized calculations on GdxZn1-xO indicate that, even if a ferromagnetic ground state were favored, the magnetic influence of Gd in a perfect ZnO wurtzite lattice is highly localized and limited to the first three nearest neighboring O atoms.