Results: A more than 30-fold increase in pulmonary vascular r

\n\nResults: A more than 30-fold increase in pulmonary vascular resistance was observed, with subsequent increase in pulmonary artery pressure, and decrease in cardiac output and arterial pressure. This response was transient, but was followed by a smaller, persistent increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. Only a small portion of the infused triolein passed the lungs, and only a small fraction could be recirculated by increasing cardiac output and pulmonary pressure.\n\nConclusion: Infusion of blood BMN 673 molecular weight containing lipid micro-emboli on the venous side leads to acute, severe hemodynamic responses that can be life threatening.

Lipid particles will be trapped in the lungs, leading to persistent effects on the pulmonary vascular resistance.”
“Objective A study was undertaken to estimate the fraction of intracranial aneurysms that might be amenable to treatment with the pipeline embolization device (PED), a current flow diverter device, and to determine the types of aneurysms that are probably not amenable to treatment with this device.\n\nMethods A retrospective analysis of 200 consecutive intracranial aneurysms as seen on three-dimensional rotational angiography images was conducted. Based on aneurysm and parent artery morphology, Apoptosis inhibitor four independent observers experienced in the use of the PED judged the likelihood that

a given aneurysm could theoretically be treated with one or more PED using a 5-point scale: grades 1 and 2 indicated amenability to treatment with multiple devices; grade 3 indicated amenability to treatment with one device; and grades 4 and 5 indicated the aneurysm would not be amenable to treatment with the PED. Aneurysms were analyzed on the basis of anatomical factors only. Rupture status was not considered.

Interobserver agreement was determined.\n\nResults 94 of 200 aneurysms (47%) were judged to be likely to be amenable to treatment with the PED; 50 cases (25%) were judged to be amenable to the use of multiple overlapping devices while, in 44 cases (22%), coverage with a single device was preferred. There was a significant relationship between the location of the aneurysm and the grade of the aneurysm (p<0.0001).\n\nConclusion On the basis of anatomical configuration, nearly half of the aneurysms in this study were likely to be amenable to treatment with the PED.”
“Bullous pemphigoid, the most common autoimmune blistering disease in Western Europe and the USA is characterized by the presence of circulating and tissue-bound autoantibodies against the hemidesmosomal proteins BP230 and BP180/collagen XVII. After binding to their target antigens at the basement membrane of the dermal epidermal junction these autoantibodies are thought to trigger an inflammatory cascade comprising complement- and granulocyte-dependent reactions that result in tissue damage.

The findings suggest that there is a need to assess the actual qu

The findings suggest that there is a need to assess the actual quality of service delivery in Pakistan.”
“An IPr-functionalized (IPr = N, N’-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl) imidazol-2-ylidene, a N-heterocyclic carbene ligand) mesoporous ethane-silica was synthesized through a co-condensation of IPr-bridged triethoxysilane and bis(triethoxysilyl) ethane. This functionalized mesoporous ethane-silica was characterized with N(2) sorption, XRD, FT-IR, solid NMR and XPS. Owing

to high surface area, large pore volume and organically functionalized surface, such a material can be used as a scaffold to design surface NHC-Pd [NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene] complexes. By variation of Pd precursors and/or ancillary ligands, a library of NHC-Pd complexes on the solid surface were tentatively created. It was found that the Pd precursor and ancillary ligands had significant impacts on the activities of the resultant heterogeneous catalysts in the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of aryl AZD0530 price chlorides. Surface NHC-Pd complexes with acetylacetonate (acac) and 3-chloropyridine as ancillary ligands are the most active. A wide range

of aryl chlorides even with deactivated and sterically hindered groups were successfully coupled over this solid catalyst under the mild conditions at a relatively low loading of Pd (80 degrees C, 0.5 mol% Pd). This solid catalyst could be reused 10 times GSI-IX purchase without a significant decrease in activity. This study not only provides the most efficient phosphine-free solid catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura couplings of less reactive substrates, but also demonstrates a noteworthy example that IPr-functionalized ethane-silica can be used as a versatile scaffold to create various active surface NHC-metal catalysts.”
“Global warming and its origins triggered the beginning LY3039478 order to considerable discussion in the last century. Studies of climate models presented in multidisciplinary scientific reports suggest that anthropogenic activities, particularly the emission of gases from the greenhouse

effect, are greatly responsible for the current climate changes. The increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) atmospheric concentration has been in discussion in the news, scientific meetings and in public policy debates in several countries. Apart from its impact on global warming, the rising atmospheric CO2 has alerted the scientific community to the need to investigate any morpho-physiological alterations in the plants, given their direct influence on photosynthesis. This article aims to discuss cellular aspects related to plant growth, their behavior of cuticular waxes and the responses of the stomatal development arising from the chemical change to the atmosphere, which are the causes of serious concern and discussion.”
“A new taxon, Syracosphaera pemmadiscus sp. nov., collected from the southwest Pacific Ocean near New Zealand, was described based on the morphological structure of both exo- and endothecal coccoliths.

“We conducted a case-control study to describe the epidemi

“We conducted a case-control study to describe the epidemiology and risk factors for infections requiring hospitalization in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Of 497 patients identified, 103 patients developed

201 episodes of infection. The probability of acquiring an infection 1year from date of MDS diagnosis was 15% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12-18%). Patients developing infections had decreased survival compared to those who did not (P=0.007). Significant risk factors for infection were higher risk MDS (hazard ratio [HR]=2.7, 95% CI=1.7-4.1, P<0.0001), nadir absolute neutrophil count <500/mL (HR=1.8, 95% CI=1.2-2.7, P<0.007), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR=2.6, 95% CI=1.4-4.9, RG-7388 purchase P<0.003), history of other malignancy (HR 2.0, 95% CI=1.3-3.1, P<0.003), and autoimmune disease (HR 2.9, 95% CI=1.4-6.0, P<0.005). Lazertinib Age, nadir platelet count <20,000/mL, diabetes

mellitus, and MDS treatment were not significant risk factors. Pneumonia was the most common infection, and bacteria the predominant pathogens.”
“Objective-To compare effects of administration of a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine once with administration of the same vaccine twice on the health and performance of cattle.

Design-Randomized, controlled trial.

Animals-612 mixed-breed male cattle with unknown health histories.

Procedures-Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (single vaccination treatment group [SVAC group] vs revaccination treatment group [REVAC group]) during the preconditioning phase of production. All cattle were given a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine. Eleven days later, REVAC group cattle received a second injection of the same vaccine. During the finishing phase of production, cattle from each treatment group were either vaccinated a third time with the BI 6727 chemical structure modified-live respiratory virus vaccine or given no vaccine. Health observations were performed daily. Blood and performance variables were measured throughout the experiment.

Results-During preconditioning,

no significant differences were observed in performance or antibody production between groups. Morbidity rate from bovine respiratory disease was lower for SVAC group cattle; however, days to first treatment for bovine respiratory disease were not different between groups. No significant differences in body weights, daily gains, or dry-matter intake between groups were observed during the finishing phase. Revaccination treatment group cattle had improved feed efficiency regardless of vaccination protocol in the finishing phase.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Vaccination once with a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine was as efficacious as vaccination twice in the prevention of bovine respiratory disease of high-risk cattle, although feed efficiency was improved in REVAC group cattle during the finishing period.

“The aim of this study was to identify and characterize 97

“The aim of this study was to identify and characterize 97

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. Two conventional multiplex PCR assays, a real-time PCR assay and two PCR-based genotyping techniques including the spa- and hypervariable region (HVR)-typing methods were used to identify and characterize 97 MRSA strains isolated between April 2006 to September 2007 from the Steve Biko Academic Hospital. All MRSA isolates were positive for 16S rRNA gene, 99% were positive for the mecA gene and 4% positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing showed 67% of isolates were SCCmec II [health-care-associated SNX-5422 datasheet MRSA (HA-MRSA)], 14% were SCCmec III (HA-MRSA) and 4% were SCCmec IVd [community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA)]. These CA-MRSA isolates showed a prevalence of 100% for the PVL gene. Using spa typing, three distinct clusters could be identified while HVR typing revealed six different clusters. CA-MRSA isolates were clustered together using spa and HVR typing.

This study showed the prevalence of the CA-MRSA strains, PVL genes, the SCCmec types and the clonality of the MRSA strains. The high prevalence of the PVL gene in CA-MRSA isolates already residing in intensive care units was alarming and indicated the emergence of new MRSA lineages with a particular fitness for community and hospital transmission.”
“The radial

profile of visible whispering gallery modes (WGM) from a single microdisk based on silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) and SiO2 superlattices was observed. Using thermal evaporation, the active layer, which consists of 30 pairs of similar to 3 nm thick Si-ncs and similar to 4 nm thick SiO2 layer, was fabricated on Si substrate. Si-ncs with diameters of 3 nm, which are well defined by SiOx layer thickness, were formed by high temperature annealing at 1100 degrees C for 60 min under N-2 GNS-1480 datasheet environment. After standard photolithography and dry etching procedure, a microdisk with 8.8 mu m diameter on a silicon pedestal was successfully obtained. We calculated the expected radial profiles of the WGMs by solving the Maxwell equations using appropriate boundary conditions. Comparison with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation depicts similar radial profiles of the WGMs. Using a confocal microphotoluminescence setup, light emission from the top of a single disk was analyzed depending on the detection position. Thanks to the birefringence of nature of Si-nc/SiO2 superlattices, well-isolated sharp TE mode WGMs could be detected from the top, without using polarizers. Irrelative to detection position, broad Si-nc background luminescence is consistently found. And as the detection point was moved from the center to the outside of the disk, WGMs fields were strongly decreased especially for the detection at the outside.

(C) 2010 Phytochemical Society of Europe Published by Elsevier B

(C) 2010 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We report on two cases of spontaneous

pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium, in one case associated with pneumorrhachis, occurring in two children suffering from the novel influenza H1N1 virus infection. At the admission both children presented with fever, violent dry cough, dyspnea and tachypnea. Radiological studies showed sizeable pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium in both patients. One of the patients also a pneumorrachis. Children were initially treated by intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics, antipyretics and a cough sedative. Oral Oseltamivir (60 mg twice daily for 5 days) was administered after the diagnosis of influenza Vactosertib A (H1N1) virus infection. Patients’ clinical condition quickly improved and children were discharged with a partial resolution of their radiological

findings. Although BLZ945 molecular weight these conditions are usually self-limiting and without respiratory or systemic consequences, their prompt recognition in children with H1N1 influenza virus infection is essential to establish fast and adequate therapy mainly related to the control of cough and the commencement of antiviral treatment.”
“We developed cationic liposomes containing DNA through a conventional process involving steps of (i) preformation of liposomes, (ii) extrusion, (iii) drying and rehydration and (iv) DNA complexation. Owing to its high prophylactic potentiality against tuberculosis, which had already been demonstrated in preclinical assays, we introduced

modifications into the conventional process towards getting a simpler and more economical process for further scale-up. Elimination of the extrusion step, increasing the lipid Sapanisertib nmr concentration (from 16 to 64 mM) of the preformed liposomes and using good manufacturing practice bulk lipids (96-98% purity) instead of analytical grade purity lipids (99.9-100%) were the modifications studied. The differences in the physico-chemical properties, such as average diameter, zeta potential, melting point and morphology of the liposomes prepared through the modified process, were not as significant for the biological properties, such as DNA loading on the cationic liposomes, and effective immune response in mice after immunisation as the control liposomes prepared through the conventional process. Beneficially, the modified process increased productivity by 22% and reduced the cost of raw material by 75%.”
“Background: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) remains a major public health problem.

Interobserver variability was quantified as coefficients of varia

Interobserver variability was quantified as coefficients of variation.

Results: Onset time of contrast enhancement in the right portal Duvelisib vein was significantly longer for both IPH (22 sec +/- 3.9, P = .0035) and cirrhosis (19.3 sec +/- 4.7, P = .04) patients than for control subjects (17 sec +/- 3.3), with no significant difference in the onset time in the right hepatic artery. Images obtained in both IPH patients (21.2 dB +/- 1.4) and control subjects (22.1 dB +/- 2.2) had significantly higher signal intensity differences than those obtained in

cirrhosis patients (13.8 dB +/- 2.8, P < .0001), with no significant difference between images of IPH patients and control subjects. Signal intensity differences of more than 18 dB had 100% sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis in IPH patients and control subjects. Interobserver variability for signal intensity differences was 8.7%.

Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced US may offer the possibility for a simple, easy, and noninvasive diagnosis of IPH. (c) RSNA, 2009″
“Microorganisms tend to form biofilms on surfaces, thereby causing deterioration of the

underlaying material. In addition, biofilm is a potential health risk to humans. Therefore, microorganism growth is not only an issue on Earth but also in manned space habitats like the International Space Station (ISS). The aim of the study was to identify physiological processes relevant for BKM120 cell line Micrococcus luteus Autophagy inhibitor supplier attachment under microgravity conditions. The results demonstrate that simulated microgravity influences physiological processes which trigger bacterial attachment and biofilm formation. The ISS strains produced larger amounts of exopolymeric substances (EPS) compared with a reference strain from Earth. In contrast, M. luteus strains were growing faster, and Earth as well as ISS isolates produced a higher yield of

biomass under microgravity conditions than under normal gravity. Furthermore, microgravity caused a reduction of the colloidal EPS production of ISS isolates in comparison with normal gravity, which probably influences biofilm thickness and stability as well.”
“Shemamruthaa (SM), an indigenous herbal formulation (Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers, Phyllanthus emblica, and pure honey) in a definite ratio was analyzed using acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in Sprague-Dawley rats. The acute toxicity study for 72 h showed no adverse effects in behavior or mortality at a dosage of 75-2,000 mg/kg of BW. The sub-acute toxicity study at 50, 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg of BW for 30 days showed transient rises in the white blood cell count, and levels of hemoglobin, free fatty acids, high density lipoproteins, and cholesterol, and a significant decrease in the blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, and LDL levels. Other parameters remained unchanged.

The multidisciplinary team approach included an oral and maxillof

The multidisciplinary team approach included an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, a prosthodontist, and a speech therapist.

Results: After uneventful healing, the 12-month follow-up showed that sufficient osseointegration of the implants for optimized function was

obtained by creating adequate de novo bone volume in the underdeveloped jaw regions. Full regular masticatory function was achieved, and esthetics were improved considerably in both patients.

Conclusion: Augmentation and implant placement prior selleck chemical to prosthetic rehabilitation appears to be a suitable treatment option for adult patients with XLHED. (c) 2009 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons”
“A tri-branched compound T03-a with 1,3,5-triazine as the core, together with two other T03a-based six-branched compounds T03-b and T03-c, was synthesized. Femtosecond Z-scan technique, two-photon excited fluorescence, two-color pump-probe spectroscopy, together with steady-state absorption and fluorescence emission measurements, were employed to investigate the optical properties and the ultrafast dynamics of these compounds in chloroform solutions. The two-photon absorption cross sections (measured by femtosecond Z-scan technique at wavelength of 800 nm) of six-branched compounds T03-b and

T03-c were determined to be 4000 GM and 6100 GM, showing 9.5-fold and 14.5-fold enhancement over that of the tri-branched counterparts, T03-a (420 GM). The enhancement was attributed to cooperative interaction between branches, the increased chromophore intensity, as well GDC-0994 as the increased delocalization of the electron cloud. Obvious fluorescence quenching and aggregation-induced enhancement of two-photon fluorescence emission were observed in compounds T03-b and T03-c. The excited state dynamics results reveal an ultrafast charge localization from the excited state to the intramolecular charge transfer state in picosecond domain, and different relaxation dynamics happen in the three compounds. The fluorescence quenching of compounds T03-b and

T03-c was also discussed by excited state dynamic results. The click here two-photon absorption-based optical limiting properties of these compounds in the femtosecond domain were also investigated, and the results indicate these materials being good candidates for optical limiting devices. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3619796]“
“Background and Aims: To examine the cross-sectional associations of inflammatory markers in plasma including C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin, and white blood cell (WBC) count, with overweight, skinfold sum (subscapular + triceps), and skinfold ratio (subscapular/triceps) among children from Bogota, Colombia.

Methods and Results: The sample (n = 2614) represented low-and middle-income children, aged 5-12 years, from Bogota.

However, reduced morbidity and hospital expenses were not observe

However, reduced morbidity and hospital expenses were not observed with stabilization of lumbar fractures. Owing to the very low level of evidence, no conclusion could be made regarding the effect of early stabilization on mortality.

We could adhere to the recommendation that patients with traumatic thoracolumbar fractures should undergo early stabilization, which may reduce the hospital length of stay, intensive GW3965 in vitro care unit length of stay, ventilator days, morbidity and hospital expenses, particularly when the thoracic spine is involved. Individual patient characteristics should be

concerned carefully. However, the definite conclusion cannot be made due to the heterogeneity of the included studies and low level of evidence. Further prospective studies are required to confirm whether there are benefits to early stabilization compared with late stabilization.”
“Oral route of drug administration is the most preferred route of drug administration but this route has its own limitations like pH of gastric media

and controlling release rate of water soluble drug. To overcome these limitations, formulations containing controlled release matrix need to be developed. Controlled release of drug can be achieved by incorporating the drug into a release rate controllinf carriers. Z-IETD-FMK Chitosan (CH)/Chondroitin Sulphate (CS) complex microcapsules were prepared to encapsulate the cardio vascular drug Propranolol hydrochloride (PHCl) by emulsion-chemical crosslinking method using sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) as cross-linking agent. The FT-IR and DSC spectra’s revealed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and polymers used. Encapsulation efficiency and in-vitro drug release was found to be 64-84 % and 55-85 % respectively. Among all the formulations the F4.1 showed controlled drug release. This study revealed that the cross linked microcapsules

of chitosan and chondroitin sulphate can be used to control drug release rate of water soluble drug.”
“This study was performed Wnt inhibitor to analyze various antioxidants, to evaluate the antioxidative activities, and to measure the protective effect for gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) to assess the functional potency of the cherry tomato. The ascorbic acid, lycopene, and beta-carotene were measured at 503.4 +/- 9.6, 39.7 +/- 1.5, and 7.4 +/- 0.3 mg/100 g d.w, and alpha-, beta+gamma-, delta-tocopherol contents were measured at 8.3 +/- 0.1, 1.7 +/- 0.0, and 0.1 +/- 0.0 mg/100 g d.w., respectively. Cherry tomato extract using hexane/acetone/EtOH (2:1:1, CTE) exhibited a ABTS radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 48.83 +/- 0.30 mu g/mL. The cherry tomato protected against the inhibition of GJIC induced by H2O2 in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells, and the reduction in phosphorylated Cx43 was most clearly correlated with the concentration of CTE.

During the past half century, it was recognized that the impact o

During the past half century, it was recognized that the impact of high As exposure on human health is much more complicated than originally anticipated. Chronic As exposure resulted

in infamous blackfoot disease, which is unique to As endemic areas in Taiwan, and various diseases including cancers and non-cancers. Although the potential-biological outcomes have been well-documented, the pathomechanisms leading from As exposure to occurrence and development of the diseases remain largely unclear. One of the major obstacles that hindered further understanding Bafilomycin A1 datasheet regarding the adverse health effect resulting from chronic As exposure is documentation of cumulative As exposure from the distant past, which remains difficult as the present technologies mostly document relatively recent As exposure. Furthermore, the susceptibility to As exposure appears to differ between different ethnic groups and individuals and is modified by lifestyle factors including smoking habits and BI 6727 inhibitor nutrition status. No consensus data has yet been reached even after comparing the study results obtained from different parts of the world focusing on associations between human As toxicity and genetic polymorphisms in terms of cellular detoxification enzymes, tumor suppressor proteins,

and DNA repair pathway. With the availability of the new powerful “”OMIC”" technologies, it may now be possible to gain new path-breaking insights regarding this important environmental health issue. The lessons learned from the past half-century placed Taiwan in an experienced position to actively participate in the international collaborative projects using these novel technologies

and standardized methods. Copyright (C) 2011, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“The effects of different surfactants on the properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polypropylene (MWCNT/PP) nanocomposites prepared by a melt mixing method have been investigated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (NaDDBS) were used as a means PCI-34051 chemical structure of noncovalent functionalization of MWCNTs to help them to be dispersed uniformly into the PP matrix. The effects of these surfactant-treated MWCNTs on morphological, rheological, thermal, crystalline, mechanical, and electrical properties of MWCNT/PP composites were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, rheometry, tensile, and electrical conductivity tests. It was found that the surfactant-treatment and micromixing resulted in a great improvement in the state of dispersion of MWCNTs in the polymer matrix, leading to a significant enhancement of Young’s modulus and tensile strength of the composites. For example, with the addition of only 2 wt % of SDS-treated and NaDDBS-treated MWCNTs, the Young’s modulus of PP increased by 61.1 and 86.1%, respectively. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

A decrease in filament linear density from the outer to the inner

A decrease in filament linear density from the outer to the innermost layers was observed in all the varieties. Although the filament tenacity was found to increase in bivoltine mulberry cocoons from the outer to the inner layers,

no such specific trend was observed for Daba cocoons. For oak tasar cocoons, it showed a marginal rise. A similar trend was observed for filament initial modulus also. The breaking extension of filament was constant for Daba cocoons, decreased for oak tasar cocoons and showed a rise followed by a fall for bivoltine mulberry cocoons from the first to the last layers. The residual sericin decreased marginally CT99021 solubility dmso from the outer to the inner layer in the case of tasar cocoons. However, for mulberry cocoons it decreased rapidly initially up to the fourth layer and thereafter showed no change. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117:

1319-1324, 2010″
“Objectives. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate mandibular trabecular pattern as an indicator of osteopenia and bone mineral density (BMD) changes in relation to mandibular bone changes.

Study design. Forty females (49 to 80 years old) underwent intraoral radiography and BMD examinations Bindarit purchase 10 years apart. The trabecular pattern was assessed visually (Lindh’s index), bone texture digitally, and bone mass by its grey-level values.

Results. With the exception of one subject, all individuals with sparse trabeculation were found to be osteopenic. All mandibular variables were tested for correlations with forearm and hip BMDs. They predicted forearm BMD, but adjusted for body mass index not hip BMD. Age, body mass index, and mandibular variables explained 29% to 64% of BMD

variance. BMD changes correlated with body mass index change, bone texture change, and trabeculation change.

Conclusions. Mandibular variables identify individuals with low BMD, but they are not discriminating enough for osteoporosis diagnostics. Mandibular bone changes correlated with forearm BMD changes. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 108: 284-291)”
“We have demonstrated memory and rewritable bistable devices based on an anchoring transition of a nematic liquid crystal on a perfluoropolymer surface. Spontaneous orientation changes between planar and homeotropic occur on cooling PI3K inhibitor and heating with a large temperature hysteresis. Photo (heat) addressing is possible from homeotropic to planar using dye-doped samples. For a coumarin dye, photoaddressed images are preserved even after heating up the sample to the isotropic temperature, whereas, for a 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran dye the images can be erased by decreasing the temperature out of the thermal hysteresis. Orientation switching also occurs by applying an electric field with a response time of several milliseconds depending on the field strength. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.