Any level of abuse is associated with more extensive life-time an

Any level of abuse is associated with more extensive life-time and recent polydrug use.”
“To compare the frequency of chromosomal heteromorphisms in reproductive failure and fertile control individuals in Northeast China, and investigate the impact

selleck compound on reproductive failure

1751 males and 1424 couples with reproductive failure (n = 4599) and 777 fertile control individuals in Northeast China were enrolled. Chromosome karyotype analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes with standard G-banding. Additionally, C-banding was performed with heterochromatin heteromorphisms, and NORs-banding with satellites/stalks variations. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) adopted for the amplification using nine specific sequence tagged sites (STS) were used to detect Y-chromosome microdeletions with Y chromosome variations (Yqh +/-). At the Pitavastatin same time, 38 heteromorphic probands’ family members were recalled for performing karyotype analysis and to be surveyed for their detailed reproductive history.

The frequency of chromosomal heteromorphisms in reproductive failure

patients (2.74 %, 126/4599) was of no statistically significant difference as compared with fertile control individuals (2.06 %, 16/777) (P > 0.05). Eight cases of Y variation (Yqh +/-) probands with Y-chromosomal microdeletions were detected among 44 reproductive failure patients and 6 fertile control men. In the 38 recalled families, the probands of fathers or mothers, INCB024360 concentration even some of their brothers or sisters, had the same heteromorphic karyotypes as probands’ despite that they didn’t have any adverse reproductive history.

There was no statistically significant difference in frequency of chromosomal heteromorphisms between reproductive failure and fertile control individuals in Northeast China. Males with Y variations (Yqh +/-) should be ordered Y-chromosomal

microdeletions detection. Through the analysis of 38 recalled families, we can also conclude that chromosomal heteromorphisms were not the impact factors for reproductive failure.”
“The precipitation technique was used to prepare non-polymeric alendronate nanoparticles. The influence of various formulation parameters on the average particle size was investigated and the effect of various stabilizers (PVA, tween, chitosan, alginate, PEG, HPMC, poloxomers) was evaluated. The selection of surfactant was a key factor to produce particles with desired properties. Poloxomer F68 was found best in achieving the minimum particle size and providing physical stability to the drug. On basis of preliminary trials, a central composite design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, drug concentration (X-1), antisolvent volume (X-2), stirring speed (X-3), and stabilizer concentration (X-4) on the average particle size.

RVF was defined as the need for RVAD, nitric oxide inhalation &gt

RVF was defined as the need for RVAD, nitric oxide inhalation > 48 hours and/or inotropic support > 14 days.

RESULTS: All ECM markers were elevated in patients with HF compared with controls (all p < 0.05). RVF developed in 23 patients (37.7%) on LVAD support. PP2 datasheet All ECM markers decreased on LVAD support in patients without RVF (all p < 0.05), but serum MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-4, and osteopontin remained elevated in RVF patients.

Multivariate analysis identified that right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI), circulating B-type natriuretic peptide, and osteopontin were associated with RVF (all p < 0.05). Osteopontin correlated inversely with RVSWI (r = -0.44, p < 0.001). Osteopontin levels > 260 ng/ml discriminate patients who develop RVF from those without RVF (sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 82%).


Marked elevation of osteopontin levels before LVAD placement is associated with RVF development. Persistent elevation of circulating ECM markers after LVAD implantation characterizes patients who develop RVF. These novel biomarkers would have a potential role in the prediction of RVF development in patients undergoing LVAD implantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:37-45 (C) 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“The Health Care Reform (HCR) legislation passed by Congress in 2010 will have significant impact on transplant PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor cancer centers, patients and health care professionals. The Act seeks to expand coverage, limit the growth in health care costs and reform the delivery and insurance systems. In Part I of this two part series, we provide an overview and perspective

of changes in private health insurance resulting from HCR. Under the plan, all Americans will be required to purchase coverage through their employer or via an improved individual/small group market. This legislation limits abusive practices such as limitations on preexisting conditions, lifetime and annual coverage limitations and dropping of beneficiaries if they become sick. The legislation will also limit high-cost plans and regulate premium increases. Private BKM120 in vitro sector reforms are likely to benefit our patients by increasing the number of patients with access to transplant services, since the use of ‘preexisting’ conditions will be eliminated. However without a concomitant increase in the organ supply, longer waiting times and greater use of marginal organs are likely to increase the cost of transplant. Furthermore, transplant providers will receive reduced reimbursement as a result of market consolidation and the growing power of large transplant networks.”
“High concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) systems offer the highest photovoltaic (PV) conversion efficiencies. Also, as production is beginning to ramp up, HCPV is becoming cost competitive with thin-film poly-CdTe and crystalline Si systems in high solar insolation regions.

2-9 7), BMI < 20 (OR, 2 4; 95%CI, 1 3-3 5) and not taking anti

2-9.7), BMI < 20 (OR, 2.4; 95%CI, 1.3-3.5) and not taking antiretroviral drugs (OR, 2.05; CI, 1.7-6.5) were associated with amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, irregular periods and secondary dysmenorrhea.


HIV-positive women in this study experienced more menstrual abnormalities of amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and irregular

periods compared to the HIV-negative controls. HIV-positive women with CD4 count < 200, BMI < 20 and who do not take antiretroviral drugs are at the greatest risk.”
“To monitor the health of the public in England, UK, the Central Health Monitoring Unit within the UK Department of Health commissioned an annual health examination survey, which became known as the Health Survey for England (HSE). The first survey was completed in 1991. The HSE covers all of England and is a nationally representative sample of those residing at private residential addresses. Each survey Mdm2 inhibitor year consists of a new sample of private residential addresses and people. The HSE collects detailed information on mental and physical health, health-related behaviour, and objective physical and biological measures in relation to demographic selleckchem and socio-economic characteristics of people

aged 16 years and over at private residential addresses. There are two parts to the HSE; an interviewer visit, to conduct an interview and measure height and weight, then a nurse visit, to carry out further measurements and take biological samples. Since 1994, survey participants aged 16

years and over have been asked for consent to follow-up through linkage to mortality and cancer registration data, and from 2003, to the Hospital Episode Statistics database, thus converting annual cross-sectional survey data into a longitudinal study. Annual survey data (1994-2009) are available through the UK Data Archive.”
“Background: The treatment of fractures of the proximal phalanx in three-phalanx fingers has for a long time been the domain of conservative static treatment in a plaster cast. After removal of the plaster, there was usually limitation of mobility of the interphalangeal joints. Fractures FK228 of the proximal phalanx are managed with conservative functional treatment in our clinic. The aim of this method is to achieve bony healing and free mobility at the same time and not in succession. We evaluated our treatment outcomes in a follow-up study.

Methods: The dressing consists of a dorsopalmar plaster splint and a so-called finger splint. The wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints are immobilized with the plaster cast. The wrist is dorsiflexed 30 degrees, and the metacarpophalangeal joints are flexed 70 degrees to 90 degrees. In this intrinsic plus position, the extensor aponeurosis is taut and covers two-thirds of the proximal phalanx, thus leading to firm splinting of the fracture.

Results: Sixty-five patients (46 men and 19 women) with 78 proximal phalanx fractures were followed up after an average of 23 months (12-69 months).

Adenovirus IgG/IgM turned from negative to positive after the 4 i

Adenovirus IgG/IgM turned from negative to positive after the 4 injections with rAd-p53. After treatment, p53 protein expression and p21 protein expression were significantly enhanced (100% and 89.9%, respectively), yet bcl-2 protein presented low expression (16.7%).

During the treatment and follow-up, 13 patients (72.2%) showed a clinical response to treatment.

Conclusions: Intraepithelial injections of Gendicine (SiBiono GeneTech, Shenzhen, China) were safe, feasible, and biologically active see more for patients with dysplastic OLK. It may be a promising treatment for OLK. (C) 2009 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:1074-1082, 2009″
“Wood polymer composite (WPC) was prepared by using Dehydrogenase inhibitor solution blended high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, and poly(vinyl chloride) with Phragmites karka wood flour and polyethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate (PE-co-GMA). The effect

of addition of nanoclay and ZnO on the properties of the composite was examined. The distribution of silicate layers and ZnO nanopowder was studied by X-ray diffractrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The improvement in miscibility among polymers due to addition of PE-co-GMA as compatibilizer was studied by scanning electron microscopy. WPC treated with 3 phr each of clay and ZnO showed an improvement in thermal stability and UV resistance. Mechanical and flame retarding properties were also enhanced after the incorporation of clay/ZnO nanopowder. Both water and water vapor absorption were found to decrease due to inclusion of nanoclay and ZnO in WPC. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, check details Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“The effect of the Ge core size on the confinement energies, barrier heights,

and hole lifetimes in spherical Ge/Si core-shell nanocrystals is studied using an atomistic, tight-binding model with an sp(3)d(5)s* basis including spin-orbit coupling. Nanocrystal diameters range from 11 nm to 17.5 nm with Ge core diameters ranging from 1 nm to 7.5 nm. With a Ge core diameter of similar to 4 nm, and a Si shell thickness of >= 3 nm, the thermionic barrier presented by the Si shell increases the hole lifetime by a factor of similar to 2 x 10(8) compared to the hole lifetime in an all-Si nanocrystal in SiO(2). A retention lifetime of 10 years is obtained with a 3 nm Ge core and a 3 nm Si shell with a 3 nm SiO(2) tunnel oxide. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3642970]“
“Purpose: The aim of this study was to depict surgical difficulties related to third molar removal with symptoms and signs presented by postoperative patients, identifying the most frequent occurrences and postoperative complications to prevent them or lessen their intensity.

Patients and Methods: Data were acquired from questionnaires answered by patients and surgeons after surgery.

Vascular risk factors

Vascular risk factors VX-809 purchase were assessed every month for 4 months and the eCVD risk was calculated using the PROspective- Cardiovascular-Munster (PROCAM), Framingham, and Reynolds risk engines. Placebo had no significant effect on risk factors or eCVD risk. Mediterranean diet gradually induced a significant reduction in total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, triglycerides, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), blood pressure and eCVD risk (24-32%). The plant stanol ester spread reduced (by 1 month) TC (-14%), LDL-C (-16%), hsCRP (-17%), and estimated CVD risk (26-30%). eCVD risk reduction was sustained at 4th months when

the gradual Mediterranean diet eCVD risk reduction became comparable to that of the stanol group.

Conclusions: Plant stanol esters yielded an early, by 1st treatment month, reduction of eCVD

risk that resulted from a TC, LDL-C, and hsCRP decrease. eCVD risk reduction on the Mediterranean diet resulted from a change in several CVD risk factors and equaled that of plant stanol at 4 months. The consumption of plant stanol esters by moderately hypercholesterolaemic patients may be a useful option to reduce CVD risk in those who do not adopt a P5091 Mediterranean diet. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A77-year-old woman underwent colonoscopic balloon dilatation for colonic stricture 1 year after laparoscopic anterior resection of sigmoid colon cancer. During the balloon dilatation, panfacial swelling and apnea were noted. Emergency endotracheal intubation was undertaken. Chest X-ray revealed diffuse

subcutaneous emphysema and bilateral pneumothorax. We discuss the possible mechanism and management of this uncommon complication during therapeutic colonoscopy.”
“Transplant vasculopathy has not been systematically investigated in composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA). The impact of multiple acute rejections (ARs) on long-term graft outcomes in reconstructive transplantation remains unknown. This study in a rat hind-limb allotransplantation model systematically analyzes vasculopathy and tissue-specific pathological changes secondary to multiple AR episodes. LEW rats were transplanted with BN rat hind limbs and treated as follows: Group 1 (Iso): isografts. Group 2 (CsA): Cyclosporine (CsA) qd; Group 3 (mult AR): CsA and dexamethasone only when AR was observed. No AR was observed inGroups Sapanisertib mw 1 and 2. Multiple AR were observed in Group 3, and each episode was completely reversed (clinically) with pulsed CsA + dexamethasone treatment. Group 3 animals demonstrated significant vascular lesions along with skin and muscle atrophy, upregulation of profibrotic gene expression and fibrosis when compared to Groups 1 and 2. In addition, allograft bone was sclerotic, weak and prone to malunion and nonunion. Interestingly, vasculopathy was a late finding, whereas muscle atrophy with macrophage infiltration was seen early, after only a few AR episodes.

The aim of our study was to give some basis for future ethical re

The aim of our study was to give some basis for future ethical reflections and policies on the subject of stored tissue samples from minors for genetic research. We concluded that a large majority of Belgian researchers and clinicians in the field of genetic research think research on stored tissue samples from minors is useful. They also think that parental consent for such research is valid, but that children should be allowed to assent as they grow older.”
“Background: Although community-acquired bacteremia is selleck products an important cause of childhood mortality in Africa, recognition of

disease burden and potential impact of bacterial vaccines is limited.

Methods: Blood cultures for bacterial pathogens were conducted systematically among children <15 years of age admitted to Manhica District Hospital, from 2001 to 2006.

Results: Blood-stream infections were identified in 8% (1550/19,896) of pediatric hospital admissions. Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) and Pneumococcus were the most prevalent pathogens isolated (26% and 25% of 1550 cases, respectively). Until 28 days of life, Staphylococcus

aureus Nirogacestat (39%) and group B Streptococcus (20%) predominated. Incidence of community-acquired bacteremia per 100,000 child-years was 1730/10(5) in children < 1 year old, 782/10(5) in 1-4 year oldd, and 49/10(5) in children 5 years and older. Case-fatality of bacteremia was 12%. Community-acquired bacteremia associated mortality accounted for 21% (162/788.) of hospital deaths. Resistance to antibiotics commonly used in Mozambique was high among invasive isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, and NTS.

Conclusions: Community-acquired bacteremia is an important cause of pediatric hospital admission and death in rural African hospitals. The high burden of disease, mortality, and pattern of antibiotic resistance

associated with bacteremia underscore the need for prevention in Sub-Saharan Africa.”
“Light illumination was observed to be able to change the charge status of surface states in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure and vary the conductivity of the two-dimensional electron EPZ004777 concentration gas channel. The effects of several parameters, including sample temperature, intensity of the ultraviolet (UV) light, wavelength, and intensity of the laser light, were investigated and mathematically analyzed. A physical model that described the dynamics of excess carriers to different light illumination was proposed. Excess carriers created by UV light are able to reach the surface states after overcoming the valence and conduction band discontinuities by absorbing thermal energy and energy of the subsequently incident photon, respectively. Understanding the effect of the ambient illumination can help to achieve a higher sensitivity for an AlGaN/GaN sensor and discover new applications in the future.

Treatment of this disorder is complex, and should be addressed fr

Treatment of this disorder is complex, and should be addressed from a multidisciplinary perspective, with planning on an individualized Prexasertib molecular weight basis. Among the different existing managements, myofunctional therapy, behavioral change programs and drug treatments are the most widely used options, though there are also more invasive surgical techniques

designed to reduce or cause submandibular saliva secretion to be rerouted towards posterior zones of the oral cavity. In any case, no scientific evidence-based management protocol has yet been established capable of affording favorable results in the majority of cases.

The present study offers a review and update on the clinical and dental management aspects of drooling.”
“Combination treatment may target different pathophysiological events following cerebral ischemia thus enhancing the efficacy of treatment in thromboembolic stroke. Taurine confers a neuroprotective effect in the mechanical stroke model. This effect has not been assessed in an embolic stroke model. Here, we sought to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of taurine alone

and in combination with thrombolytic therapy to investigate whether combined administration would extend the therapeutic time window without increasing the hemorrhagic transformation in a rat embolic stroke model. Rats were subjected to right embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion and then randomly assigned to the following groups: saline treatment MI-503 solubility dmso alone at 4 h, urokinase, taurine treatment alone at 4, 6, or 8 h, and the combination of taurine

Galunisertib inhibitor and urokinase at 4, 6, or 8 h after the insult. Brain infarct volume, neurobehavioral outcome, regional cerebral blood flow, intracranial hemorrhage incidence were observed and evaluated. Posttreatment with taurine at 4 or 6 h, urokinase at 4 h or in combination at 4, 6, or 8 h significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurobehavioral outcome. The combination treatment had better neurobehavioral outcome and smaller infarction volume than urokinase or taurine treatment alone. The clinical outcome correlated well with infarct volume. Together, the present study suggests that administration of taurine after stroke is neuroprotective, seemingly because it reduces the reperfusion damage of urokinase, leading to widen the therapeutic window for the thrombolytic effect of urokinase to 8 h. Thrombolysis can also enhance the neuroprotective effect of taurine. The reduction of inflammatory response, neuron death and inhibition of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption may underlie the beneficial effects of combination of taurine and urokinase in the treatment of embolic stroke.”
“Objective: Resistant strains of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are one of the principal causes of recurrent acute otitis media (otitis prone), rhinosinusitis, and pneumonia in young children.


Patients undergoing cultured autologous melano


Patients undergoing cultured autologous melanocyte transplantation were randomly assigned to four different study groups. Group 1 underwent 20 sessions of NB-UVB treatment before transplantation; Group 2 underwent 30 sessions of NB-UVB treatment after transplantation; Group 3 underwent 20 sessions of NB-UVB treatment before transplantation and 30 sessions after transplantation; Group 4 underwent only transplantation.


Four hundred thirty-seven patients were enrolled. Group 3 responded best, more than 90% repigmentation

was achieved in 81.3% of patients, and 94.8% patients experienced 50% or greater repigmentation. Statistical analysis showed that there was a highly significant difference between the four groups (chi(2)=35.56, p<.001). Homogeneous skin color was obtained on the repigmentation areas, and no scarring or other serious side effects were observed.


Cultured autologous melanocyte transplantation is an effective treatment for stable vitiligo. Combination of NB-UVB therapy with melanocyte transplantation can accelerate

repigmentation of transplanted vitiliginous areas, especially if NB-UVB is given before and after transplantation.”
“We describe our recent studies of imitation and cultural transmission in chimpanzees and children, which question late twentieth-century characterizations of children as imitators, but chimpanzees Alvocidib as emulators. As emulation entails

learning only about the results of others’ actions, it has been thought to curtail any capacity to sustain cultures. Recent chimpanzee diffusion experiments have by contrast documented a significant capacity for copying local behavioural traditions. Additionally, in recent ‘ghost’ experiments with no model visible, chimpanzees failed to replicate the object movements on which emulation is supposed to focus. We conclude that chimpanzees rely more on imitation and have greater cultural capacities than previously acknowledged. However, we also find that they selectively apply a range of social learning processes that include emulation. Recent studies demonstrating surprisingly unselective ‘over-imitation’ in children suggest that children’s propensity to imitate has been underestimated too. We discuss the implications of these developments for the nature of social learning and culture Pevonedistat price in the two species. Finally, our new experiments directly address cumulative cultural learning. Initial results demonstrate a relative conservatism and conformity in chimpanzees’ learning, contrasting with cumulative cultural learning in young children. This difference may contribute much to the contrast in these species’ capacities for cultural evolution.”
“In this study we investigate the mechanisms of growth and boron (B) incorporation into crystalline silicon (c-Si) during crystallization of amorphous doped silicon (a-Si:B) films.

“Two experiments were designed to investigate the administ

“Two experiments were designed to investigate the administration of intravaginal progesterone in protocols for oestrus and ovulation synchronization in beef heifers. In Experiment 1, cyclic Black Angus heifers (n = 20) received an Ovsynch protocol and were randomly assigned to receive (CIDR-Ovsynch) or not (Ovsynch) a progesterone device between Days 0 and 7. Treatment with

a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device significantly selleck chemicals llc increased the size of the dominant follicle prior to ovulation (12.8 +/- 0.4 CIDR-Ovsynch vs 11.4 +/- 0.4 Ovsynch) (p < 0.02). Plasma progesterone concentrations throughout the experiment were affected by the interaction between group and day effects

(p < 0.004). In Experiment 2, cyclic Polled Hereford heifers (n = 382) were randomly assigned to one of the six treatment groups (3 x 2 factorial design) to receive a CIDR, a used bovine intravaginal device (DIB), or a medroxiprogesterone acetate (MAP) sponge and GnRH analogues (lecirelin or buserelin). All heifers received oestradiol benzoate plus one of the devices on Day 0 and PGF on Day 7 pm (device withdrawal). Heifers were detected in oestrus 36 h after PGF and inseminated 812 h later, while the remainder received GnRH 48 h after PGF and were inseminated on Day 10 (60 h). The number of heifers detected in oestrus on Day 8 and conception rate to AI on Day 9 were higher (p < 0.01) in the used-DIB than in the this website CIDR or MAP groups, while the opposite occurred with the pregnancy rate to FTAI on Day 10 (p < 0.01). There was no effect of progesterone source, GnRH analogue or their interaction on overall pregnancy rates (64.9%). Progesterone treatment of heifers during an Ovsynch protocol resulted in a larger pre-ovulatory follicle in beef heifers. Progesterone content of intravaginal devices in synchronization protocols is important for the timing of AI, as the use of low-progesterone devices can shorten the interval to oestrus.”
“Background: We examined

the impact of nonST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) on clinical outcomes in patients with bifurcation lesions treated with drug-eluting stents. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that NSTE-ACS would be attributable to the increased risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in bifurcation percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods: We enrolled 1668 patients, using data from a multicenter real-world bifurcation registry. The primary objective was to compare the 2-year cumulative risk of MACE in patients with NSTE-ACS to those with stable angina. Major adverse cardiac events were defined as the composite endpoint of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target-lesion revascularization.

Alkaline phosphatase levels of the groups were comparable in both

Alkaline phosphatase levels of the groups were comparable in both time intervals (p > 0.05). 0.2 mT PEMF application on osteoblast-like cells led to cell proliferation and differentiation better than 0.06 mT PEMF and LLLT at 808 nm, although a remarkable effect of both PEMF and LLLT could not be detected. The ALP activity of 0.2 and 0.06 mT PEMF Tariquidar mouse and LLLT were comparable.”
“Biofuels are of increasing interest as alternatives to the petroleum-based fuels. In particular, second and third generation advanced biofuels, that

could be produced from renewable materials such as agricultural residues appear to be more competitive. In this context, this work has focused on the potential of the potato peel use (PPW), a zero value waste, as feedstock for bioethanol production. First, an

economical medium for amylase production from Bacillus sp. UEB-S (amylase UEB-S) was formulated using potato peel (10 g L-1) as a carbon source and soy flour (20 g L-1) as a nitrogen source. Amylase production reached 15 U/mL at flask scale and increased to 87 U/mL at fermenter scale. A comparative study between acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis of PPW was investigated. It showed that a combined enzymatic treatment using amylase UEB-S and Amyloglucosidase under optimal conditions gave significant yields of reducing sugars (69 g L-1) and ethanol (21 g L-1). These results are highly interesting and demonstrate the possibility of substituting commercial enzyme by an onsite produced enzyme as well as the potential of PPW as bioethanol Selleckchem VE-821 feedstock. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To evaluate the rule of endoscopic sphenopalatine artery cauterization in posterior intractable epistaxis in pediatric age group as regard technical PD173074 molecular weight difficulty, efficacy, and safety in children.

Study design: Retrospective study.

Patients and methods: From March 2008 to February 2011, 7 children (4 male, 3 female) with idiopathic intractable posterior epistaxis, patients’ age ranged from 8 to 14 years (10.7 average). All patients underwent preoperative laboratory investigations to exclude bleeding or coagulation disorders and CT paranasal sinus. All patients underwent endoscopic sphenopalatine

artery cauterization (7 procedures for 7 patients, 5 were in the right side and 2 were in the left side).

Results: postoperative evaluation showed no recurrence for epistaxis during the post operative follow up period. Also, no complications were found. The average follow up period was 17.8 months.

Conclusions: Endoscopic cauterization of sphenopalatine artery in pediatric age group was effective and safe technique providing that the surgeon has a good experience regarding pediatric: endoscopic sinonasal anatomy. Minimal endoscopic technique in this age group is important to avoid unnecessary operative and postoperative complications. Avoid excessive cauterization to lateral nasal wall in this technique is crucial to avoid unexpected nerve injury or tissue necrosis.