http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gde.2014.03.001 In the past 6 months, 2 replication independent variants of the core histone H2B have been described. These variants play critical roles in spermatogenesis (TH2B, Saadi and Khochbin, Genes and Development July 2013) and in chemosensory neurons of the olfactory system (H2BE, Santoro and Dulac, eLIFE, December 2013). Thus, along with H2A and H3, H2B variants also play a critical role in specifying differential cell fate by regulating chromatin structure. “
“Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 2013, 23:89–95 This review comes from a themed issue on Genome architecture and expression Edited by Genevieve Almouzni
and Frederick Alt For a complete overview see the Issue and the Editorial Available online GSK-3 activity 24th December 2012 0959-437X/$ – see front matter, © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gde.2012.11.006 Although chromatin was first described 130 years ago , the organization and dynamics of chromatin in the interphase nucleus in vivo, and how this organization relates to transcriptional regulation, is still not fully understood. Here we review recent advances in electron microscopy and light microscopy, INK 128 solubility dmso as well as biochemical and molecular
biology approaches that have shed new light on this fundamental question in biology. DNA in the eukaryotic cell nucleus exists as a complex with histone proteins.
147 bp of DNA are wrapped in 1.7 negatively supercoiled turns around the nucleosome core particle comprised of two H3-H4 and two H2A–H2B histone dimers. Nucleosomes are separated from each other by 10–80 bp linker DNA associated with linker histone H1 (reviewed in ). This DNA–nucleosome complex forms a 10 nm diameter fiber resembling ‘beads on a string’ [3 and 4] (Figure 1e). ADAMTS5 The 10 nm chromatin fiber has been shown in vitro to form a higher order helical fiber 30 nm in diameter ( Figure 1d) containing 6–11 nucleosomes per turn [ 5 and 6] which has been proposed to form even higher order chromatin fibers in interphase [ 7], and a 200–300 nm chromonema structure in mitotic chromosomes [ 8 and 9]. Two models have been proposed to describe the 30 nm fiber ( Figure 1d). First, an interdigitated one-start solenoid structure where each nucleosome interacts with its fifth or sixth neighbor [ 10]. Secondly, a two-start zigzag ribbon where every second nucleosome interacts [ 11 and 12]. In a molecular tweezer experiment using 25-nucleosome repeat arrays in vitro, it has been determined that the extension characteristics and force of 4 pN required to fully extend the array from a 30 nm to a 10 nm fiber is consistent with a solenoid structure [ 13]. While it has been extensively studied in vitro, evidence for the existence of the 30 nm fiber in vivo is limited.