The steep water was then drained off, and the slurry was ground i

The steep water was then drained off, and the slurry was ground in a laboratory blender. The ground slurry was screened through a 200-mesh sieve. The material remaining on the sieve was washed thoroughly with distilled water. The filtrate slurry was allowed to stand for 3 h. The supernatant was then removed, and the settled starch layer was resuspended in distilled water and centrifuged in wide-mouthed cups at 1200g for 20 min. The upper non-white layer was scraped off. The white layer was resuspended in distilled water and centrifuged at 1200g for 15 min. The upper non-white layer was scraped off

again, and the starch was collected and dried in an oven at 40 °C selleck screening library for 12 h. The starch isolation yield was approximately 24%, and the protein, ash and lipid contents in the native starch were approximately 0.43%, 0.14% and 0.19%, respectively, on a dry basis. Starch oxidation was performed according to the method described

by Wang and Wang (2003), with some modifications. A 35% starch slurry was prepared by adding deionised water to 200 g of starch (dry basis) to a final weight of 571 g in a 2 l reaction vessel and mantle. The starch slurry was maintained at 35 °C by occasionally turning off the mantle heating power, and the pH level was adjusted to 9.5 with 0.5 N NaOH. Twenty grams of sodium hypochlorite (1 g of active chlorine and 200 g of starch resulting in 0.50% active chlorine, w/w) was slowly added to the starch slurry over a period of 30 min while maintaining the pH level at 9.5 with 1 N HCl. After the addition of sodium hypochlorite, the pH value selleck chemicals llc of the slurry was maintained at 9.5 with 1 N NaOH for an additional 50 min. The slurry was then adjusted to a pH value of 7.0 with 1 N HCl, filtered by suction with a Buchner filter funnel (Whatman filter No. 4), washed

with a twofold volume of deionised water and dried in a convection oven at 40 °C for 24 h. The same procedure was applied for different active chlorine concentrations (0.50%, 1.0% and 1.5%; w/w). The carbonyl content was determined Dimethyl sulfoxide according to the titrimetric method as described by Smith (1967). A starch sample (2 g) was added to 100 ml of distilled water in a 500-ml flask. The suspension was gelatinised in a boiling water bath for 20 min, cooled to 40 °C, and adjusted to a pH value of 3.2 with 0.1 N HCl. A hydroxylamine reagent (15 ml) was then added to the mixture. The flask was stoppered and placed in a 40 °C water bath for 4 h with slow stirring. The excess hydroxylamine was determined by rapidly titrating the reaction mixture to a pH value of 3.2 with standardised 0.1 N HCl. A blank determination with only the hydroxylamine reagent was performed in the same manner. The hydroxylamine reagent was prepared by first dissolving 25 g of hydroxylamine hydrochloride in 100 ml of 0.5 N NaOH, before the final volume was adjusted to 500 ml with distilled water.

, 2001), PDMS–DVB (San Juan et al , 2007) and DVB–CAR–PDMS fibre

, 2001), PDMS–DVB (San Juan et al., 2007) and DVB–CAR–PDMS fibre (Lara-Gonzalo, Sánchez-Uría, Segovia-García, & Sanz-Medel, 2008) for the extraction of THMs from water. However, many authors agree that the CAR–PDMS fibre provides the best extraction efficiency. In this study, six types of fibres were investigated to extract THMs from a 10 mL soft drink sample spiked with 10 μg L−1 of each compound with the addition of 80 μL of NaOH 6 mol L−1. The extractions were carried out in triplicate for each fibre studied. The extraction time was 10 min at 20 °C with magnetic stirring speed Selleck BMS387032 of 500 rpm. The extraction efficiency of THMs increased in the following sequence

of fibres: PA 85 μm < PDMS 100 μm < CW–DVB 65 μm < PDMS–DVB MLN0128 65 μm < DVB–CAR–PDMS

50/30 μm < CAR–PDMS. The CAR–PDMS fibre clearly shows superior extraction efficiency in relation to the other fibres. This superiority can be attributed to the porous phase of carboxen that captures small analytes contained between two and twelve carbon atoms. Comparing with the second better fibre, CAR–PDMS is 2, 3 and 1.5-folds better than DVB–CAR–PDMS for CHCl3, CHCl2Br and CHClBr2, respectively. The CAR–PDMS fibre was selected and applied to other experiments. The extraction temperature effect on the THM extraction was performed in the range between 10 °C and 80 °C. Increasing the extraction temperature increases the diffusion of the analytes to the fibre surface. Consequently, the time necessary to reach the equilibrium of partition between the sample and extractor

phase is reduced. However, the sorption process is exothermic and high extraction temperatures can decrease the partition coefficient decreasing the mass of analytes extracted at equilibrium. Generally, an optimum extraction temperature can be observed during the SPME procedure (Budziak et al., 2007 and Jia et al., 1998). The best conditions are 20 °C for CHCl3, 30 °C for CHCl2Br, 50 °C for CHClBr2 and the response was similar Cytidine deaminase for CHBr3 between 30 °C and 60 °C, already considering experimental errors. It can be observed that after 60 °C, the efficiency of THM extraction decays rapidly. For further studies an extraction temperature of 30 °C was selected for all analytes. The extraction of analytes can be affected by headspace volume in which each compound diffuses. The theory of SPME dictates that for greater sensitivity for the headspace extraction mode, the volume of the gaseous phase should be minimised. In this study the headspace volume was in the range of 15–39 mL (sample volume range of 25–1 mL) using 40 mL vials. The soft drink sample was spiked with 10 μg L−1 of each target analyte. Different volumes of NaOH were added according to the volume of the sample studied (until pH 6.1). The best extraction condition for all the THMs occurs using 20 mL of headspace volume (sample volume of 20 mL).

7 vs 66 6 ± 5 6, respectively; p = 0 01) For the entire cohort,

7 vs. 66.6 ± 5.6, respectively; p = 0.01). For the entire cohort, we found a significant increase in RVSWI (mean increase 3.4 ± 9.5 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor gm·m/m2/beat, p = 0.007) and PC (mean increase 0.4 ± 1.0 ml/mm Hg, p = 0.02) after medical therapy (Fig. 2). In the prostanoid group there was a significant increase in RVSWI (p = 0.04) and a trend toward improvement in PC (p = 0.06). However, in the 17 patients started on a regimen of oral therapy, neither RVSWI nor PC increased

significantly after treatment (p = 0.25 and 0.46, respectively) (Fig. 3). In the 7 patients who were treated with calcium channel blockers, RVSWI (15.7 ± 4.0 gm·m/m2/beat vs. 19.4 ± 3.2 gm·m/m2/beat; p = 0.02) and PC (1.2 ± 0.3 ml/mm Hg vs. 2.3 ± 1.1 ml/mm Hg; p = 0.03) both increased after therapy. Because only prostanoids and calcium channel blockers were available between 1996 and 2001, we repeated our analysis with a cutoff diagnosis date of January 2001 (n = 50). Improvement in RVSWI and PC remained significant in the prostanoid group (p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively) and did not reach significance in the oral therapy group (p = 0.23 and 0.30, respectively). Change in RVSWI after therapy was driven more by change in CO (rs = 0.5, p = 0.002) than change in mPAP (rs = 0.36, p = 0.03) (Figs. 4A and 4B). The major determinant of

RVSWI was change in SV (rs = 0.54, p < 0.001). Increase in CO after therapy was almost entirely due to an increase in SV (rs = 0.89, p < 0.001) with no contribution from change in HR (rs = 0.1, Thiamet G p = 0.3) (Figs. 4C and selleckchem 4D). We found that change in PC was strongly

influenced by change in PVR (rs = −0.6, p < 0.001) (Fig. 5). Change in PVR was investigated as a possible explanation for the difference in RV function response between oral and prostanoid therapy groups. We found no difference in delta PVR between the oral-only and prostanoid groups (−0.4 ± 4.6 WU vs. −4.5 ± 7.9 WU, respectively; p = 0.07), although there was a strong trend toward statistical significance. Change in PVR and change in RVSWI did not correlate significantly in either the oral only (rs = −0.12, p = 0.66) or prostanoid group (rs = −0.20, p = 0.44). When comparing the response to therapy by RVSWI tertile, we found a stepwise response with the highest improvement in RVSWI in the lowest tertile (Fig. 6). There was no association between tertile of baseline RVSWI and likelihood of being treated with prostanoid therapy (p = 0.67; 95% confidence interval: 0.4 to 1.7). A similar stepwise pattern in PC was seen in response to therapy with the lowest baseline tertile improving the most (Fig. 6). Differences in change in 6MWD and functional class by group are shown in Table 4. Improvement in both 6MWD and functional class was significantly better in the prostanoid group, compared with the oral therapy group. For the cohort as a whole, no correlation was found between RVSWI at diagnosis and 6MWD (rs = −0.08, p = 0.59) or functional class (rs = −0.19, p = 0.

Lichen species connected to aspen depend on different stages of s

Lichen species connected to aspen depend on different stages of succession and consequently, to promote such lichens and other organisms favored by aspen trees, a landscape should consist of forests of different ages with a continuous aspen regeneration. We thank Jan Andersson, Håkan Blomqvist, Thomas P. Johansson, Bengt Norberg, Magnus Persson, Nils Erik Pettersson, Ulf Stäring and Per Simonsson at SCA, and Bo Magnusson and

Gunnar Selling at the Swedish Forest Agency who helped us find suitable sites and gave us access to maps, etc. Ulf Arup for help with identification of some Caloplaca species and Christian Fasudil mw Printzen for help with determining Lecidea sphaerella; Karin Öhman, Sebastian Sundberg and two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments on the manuscript. This work Afatinib in vivo was financially supported by the Swedish Research Council Formas (Grants 230-2006-351 and 215-2009-569 to LG). “
“The importance of cost-effectiveness in conservation planning and implementation has grown (Bottrill et al., 2008, Ferraro and Pattanayak,

2006 and Murdoch et al., 2007), reflecting the current pressures on biodiversity and a realization that all species that require conservation investments simply cannot be helped with today’s levels of conservation spending. Since there is a trade-off between money spent on collecting data and money used for actual conservation action, finding the appropriate level for biodiversity Clomifene surveys is an important step in conservation planning. Hitherto, conservation planning studies commonly have been made at a landscape or national scale. Studies at small scales like forest management units, stands and individual trees are not as common (but see Perhans et al. 2011). Conducting biodiversity surveys to decide where and how to invest in different types of conservation actions is normally regarded as one of the first stages in a systematic conservation planning process (Margules and Pressey 2000). Yet, whether or not to

survey and how thorough surveys should be are challenging questions (Possingham et al. 2007). A few studies address these questions by comparing survey benefits and costs. Balmford and Gaston (1999) argue that biodiversity surveys prior to decisions on where to locate new reserves generally allow the selection of fewer, or smaller, areas because the survey data allow selection of areas that complement each other in terms of the conservation features they contain. The cost-effectiveness of surveys depends on this saving in protected area in addition to the costs of land acquisition and maintenance. They suggest that the break-even survey cost is large enough in both developed and undeveloped countries to make surveys cost-effective in a wide range of applications. Grantham et al.

In addition to this effect on forest health, PPM caterpillars hav

In addition to this effect on forest health, PPM caterpillars have urticating hairs, and may therefore cause health problems for people living in newly colonized urban areas ( Battisti et al., 2011). Monitoring and pest management actions are therefore required on a regular basis, to ensure the detection, evaluation Galunisertib and mitigation of potential risks to forest and public health ( Jactel et al., 2006 and Cayuela et al., 2011). However, we still lack some of the basic knowledge required for relevant analyses of the risk posed by PPM. In particular, the mechanisms controlling the distribution of PPM attacks within

and between pine stands remain unknown. Pest risk is defined as a combination of three components: (1) hazard occurrence, which depends on the spatiotemporal dynamics of pest populations; (2) plant vulnerability to hazard, resulting in a certain amount of damage; and (3) the economic impact of damage, depending on the potential value of the plants damaged (Jactel et al., 2012). For the determination of each of these components, we need to know which trees are likely to be attacked by PPM. Conventional population monitoring is based on counts of winter nests built by late-instar larvae of PPM and visible in tree crowns (Geri and Miller, 1985 and Jactel et al., 2006). This sampling method could be improved by better knowledge of the spatial distribution of attacked trees, both between Regorafenib and within

pine stands. It has recently been shown that the frequency of infestation with PPM is higher for trees at the stand edge than for trees at the heart of the stand (Dulaurent et al., 2012), but it remains unclear whether the infested trees are randomly distributed or aggregated within stands (Arnaldo and Torres, 2005). Feeny (1970) coined the term “plant apparency” to describe the likelihood of a plant being identified by its herbivore enemies. This original definition as been extended to include two key features underlying plant apparency (Castagneyrol et al., 2013): the individual size, color or odor of the plant, and PRKACG its relative abundance within the plant community. At the stand scale, the probability of an individual tree being attacked

by PPM would be expected to decrease with increasing tree numbers, i.e. in denser stands, due to a dilution process, as reported by Geri and Miller (1985). At the individual tree scale, the probability of attack is generally dependent on the insect’s perception of the physical or chemical cues provided by the host tree. Insect herbivores may locate host trees through visual cues ( Prokopy and Owens, 1983), such as tree color ( Goyer et al., 2004 and Campbell and Borden, 2009) or shape. For example, Dulaurent et al. (2012) showed that the planting broadleaved hedgerows next to pine stands reduced the number of attacks on the pines growing behind the hedgerow. The magnitude of this effect was dependent on the relative heights of the pines and the broadleaved hedge trees.

Safety and liability matters also need

Safety and liability matters also need selleck compound to be considered. In I-PCIT, where the provider has less control over the family’s treatment environment, it may be more difficult to ensure safety. Certain high-risk families may consequently be inappropriate

for I-PCIT. In our own work, we do not offer I-PCIT to families with histories of abuse or to children engaging in self-harm behaviors. On the other hand, PCIT has indeed shown great utility in addressing the problems of families with histories of abuse (e.g., Herschell and McNeil, 2005 and Timmer et al., 2005) and it is quite possible that the opportunity to broadly extend ABT-737 supplier PCIT with technology to such high-risk populations can meaningfully reduce rates of child maltreatment in remote communities. It is also important to have alternative contact information to reach family members in the event of equipment failure and a dropped connection. As in all mental health care, prior to obtaining informed consent for I-PCIT, it should be made clear to families that if there is reasonable suspicion that the child or anybody else could be in serious danger, confidentiality may be broken. Moreover, even among children and families

that are not at high risk, child behavior and aggression can escalate during PCIT sessions to the point that special playtime must end, and in such circumstances the PCIT therapist will commonly come out from the observation room to support the parents. As it is not possible for the I-PCIT therapist Baricitinib to directly join the family in the

same room, unique I-PCIT provisions are made to prepare for and address such potential situations. For example, during the CDI Teach session, situations in which CDI should be discontinued are addressed at length and the importance of parents remaining calm when ending CDI in such situations is discussed. During CDI coaching a great emphasis is placed on active ignoring of inappropriate child behaviors, especially physically rough behavior, through turning away from the child or moving to a new space in the room to play away from the child. The larger play area in a family’s home can often make such physical relocation even easier than in standard clinic-based PCIT. When such situations occur in treatment, therapists coach parents to inform the child as to why CDI is ending early and instruct the parents to clean up toys so as to remove any objects from the playroom that the child could use in an aggressive manner or that could be reinforcing. If during such a situation contact is lost with the parent, then the therapist calls the home to continue coaching via telephone.

After WWII, antibodies against Naples virus were reported

After WWII, antibodies against Naples virus were reported click here but technical details were not accessible (Terzin et al., 1962 and Vesenjak-Hirjan et al., 1980). In a single recent study patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) were for Toscana virus IgM and IgG using an immuno-line assay. Acute Toscana virus infection was detected in 10.3% of cases (Hukić and Salimović-Besić, 2009). The first outbreak of sandfly fever was recorded in 1946. The disease was reported in several large cities in different

provinces (Guelmino and Jevtic, 1955, Hukic and Salimovic-Besic, 2009 and Simić, 1951). Thousands of people are believed to have been infected, and hundreds of sandflies were collected. In 1982, Naples virus was isolated from P. perfiliewi in Dobrič, Southeast Serbia ( Gligic et al., 1982). In the 1970’s, 9.6% and 27.9% of tested sera contained neutralizing antibodies (PRNT (80)) against Sicilian and Naples virus, respectively (Tesh et al., 1976). Recently in North-Western Kosovo, 200 blood donors were screened for Toscana virus and Naples virus through ELISA and confirmed via PRNT (80) with Naples virus and Toscana virus (Venturi et al., 2011): 11 sera were positive in

the screening step (5.5%), and 2 were confirmed with Naples virus and 1 with Toscana virus. There Selleckchem CCI779 are no records of studies that report Toscana virus, Naples or Sicilian virus in Albania. From 438 sandflies collected in 2005 from the Kruje and Lezhe regions (Northern Albania), Inositol oxygenase known to be endemic for leishmaniasis (Papa et al., 2011), two pools originating from Lezhe were positive for phlebovirus RNA: the 201-nt sequence in the polymerase gene was clearly distinct from all Naples and Sicilian virus for which sequence are available, and most closely related to Arbia virus (within the Salehebad virus species). Based on sequence data, this new virus was provisionally named Adria virus, but virus isolation was not obtained ( Papa et al., 2011). Just after WWII, sandfly fever outbreaks were recorded in Armenia, Moldova,

Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Crimea and Romania (Gaidamovich et al., 1974 and Hertig and Sabin, 1964). Antibodies against Sicilian, Naples and Karimabad virus were detected in Moldova, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan by PRNT (80) (Gaidamovich et al., 1978 and Tesh et al., 1976). A strain of Naples virus was isolated in 1950 in Turkmenistan and identified later (Gaidamovich et al., 1974). The single evidence for the presence of sandfly fever in Malta is based on a case of infection that was documented in a Swiss traveler after returning from a two-week vacational stay on the island. After his hospitalization with common symptoms of sandfly fever (without meningitis), he was detected positive for Naples virus and Toscana virus antibodies by IIFT. Immunoblot (IB) for bunyaviruses also showed positivity for Toscana virus.

ginseng-unique dominant band (Pg-specific marker) and the SSP-PQ-

ginseng-unique dominant band (Pg-specific marker) and the SSP-PQ-030-F2 and pgcpir 030 R primer pair for amplifying a P. quinquefolius-unique dominant band (Pq-specific marker; Fig. 3B,C). These two primer sets reproducibly produced species-specific unique bands. Many different products made from P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius are sold in Chinese ginseng markets ( Fig. 4A). We purchased various forms of primary processed ginseng, such as dried root slices, dried flowers, flakes, dried ginseng, and powder, in which the original species was labeled as American ginseng (P. quinquefolius) or Korean ginseng (P. ginseng). Results using the codominant marker pgcpir 035 and the species-specific

dominant marker sets were in agreement

with regard to genotype and also coincided with the species names denoted on the product labels, suggesting that both markers are credible for evaluation of species AZD2281 ( Fig. 4B,C). However, some products gave rise to bands for both species-specific markers, suggesting that Korean and American ginseng might be mixed during manufacturing or harvesting in some products (data not shown). Polymorphism of CIS is rarely identified among accessions in the same species [20], [24], [32] and [33], although a few find more CIS markers polymorphic in the same species were reported for Allium cepa, such as markers for identification of cytoplasmic male sterile genotypes among various onion accessions [34] and [35]. Therefore, although it is unlikely, we cannot preclude the possibility that an unrecognized variation among American ginseng accessions in the target regions might coincide with the region in Korean ginseng by chance. Inspection of more large collections and regular monitoring will be necessary to address this possibility. The above results

show that the codominant pgcpir 035 DNA marker and species-specific dominant marker set can be successfully applied to identify the original species from fresh roots and various processed ginseng products. Codominant markers have been utilized to identify heterozygosity in individuals and mixing of samples in other species. We tested our markers for the detection of mixtures of the two ginseng species because intentional or unintentional mixing Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 of the species could be common in the ginseng market, as our preliminary results suggested for the Chinese market. Therefore, we used both markers on samples of mixed DNA or tissues that included P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius in various ratios ( Fig. 5). As expected, the codominant pgcpir 035 marker gave rise to various intensities of both bands that coincided with the mixing ratio. Mixtures of dried root slices containing <10% of the second species could be clearly identified using the codominant pgcpir 035 DNA marker ( Fig. 5). In addition to the species-unique bands, an additional band (* in Fig. 5) was always observed for the mixed samples.

Needless to say, this view of morality is strongly at odds with t

Needless to say, this view of morality is strongly at odds with traditional

ethical views and common intuitions. It is also a highly demanding moral view, requiring us, on some views, to make very great personal sacrifices, such as giving most of our income to help needy strangers in distant countries (Kagan, 1989 and Singer, 1972). A great deal of recent research has focused on hypothetical moral dilemmas in which participants must decide whether to sacrifice the life of one person in order to save the lives of Fulvestrant mw a greater number. In this large and growing literature, when individuals endorse this specific type of harm they are described (following Greene, Sommerville, Nystrom, Darley, & Cohen, 2001) as making utilitarian judgments; when they reject it, they are said to be making non-utilitarian (or deontological) judgments. 2 This terminology suggests that such ‘utilitarian’ judgments express the kind of general impartial concern for the greater good that is at the heart of utilitarian ethics. This is a widely held assumption. For example, it has been argued that this research shows that utilitarian judgment

is uniquely based in deliberative processing involving a cost-benefit analysis of the act that would lead to the greatest good, while, by contrast, non-utilitarian judgment is driven by instinctual emotional aversion to causing ‘up-close-and-personal’ harm selleck to another person ( Greene, 2008). It has even been argued that this empirical evidence about the psychological sources of utilitarian and non-utilitarian judgment can help explain the historical debate between utilitarians and their opponents ( Greene, Nystrom, Engell, Darley, & Cohen, 2004) and, more radically, even that it should lead us to adopt a utilitarian approach to ethics ( Greene, 2008 and Singer, 2005). However, as we have pointed out in earlier work, these large

theoretical claims are problematic. (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate This is because endorsing harm in the unusual context of sacrificial dilemmas need not express anything resembling an impartial concern for the greater good (Kahane, 2014 and Kahane and Shackel, 2010). Indeed, the sacrificial dilemmas typically used in current research represent only one, rather special, context in which utilitarian considerations happen to directly conflict with non-utilitarian rules or intuitions. To be willing to sacrifice one person to save a greater number is merely to reject (or overrule) one such non-utilitarian rule. Such rejection, however, is compatible with accepting extreme non-utilitarian rules in many other contexts—rules about lying, retribution, fairness or property, to name just a few examples, not to mention non-impartial moral norms permitting us give priority to ourselves, and to our family or compatriots, over others.

Louis, MO, USA) The following antibodies were used: poly (ADP-ri

Louis, MO, USA). The following antibodies were used: poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), Bid, DR5,

caspase-8, cleaved caspase-7, cleaved caspase-6, VEGFR inhibitor p53, β-actin (Cell signaling, Danvers, MA, USA); cytochrome C (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA); and Bcl-2, Bax, and DR4 (Santa Cruz Biotechnologies, Santa Cruz, CA, USA). Fine Black ginseng (10 kg) was selected, dried, and powdered. Exactly 2 kg of powdered samples were refluxed two times with 10 L of 95% ethyl alcohol for 2 h in a water bath. The extracts were filtered through filter paper (Nylon membrane filters 7404-004; Whatman, Dassel, Germany) and concentrated by a vacuum evaporator (yield: 18.35%). HCS assay Ethyl alcohol extract (150 g) was dissolved in 1500 mL of water and extracted with 1500 mL of diethyl ether. The aqueous layer was extracted three times with 1500 mL of water-saturated n-butanol (n-BuOH). The n-BuOH fraction (84.50 g) was evaporated. The ginsenoside composition of the concentrate was analyzed by HPLC, as suggested by Ko and

colleagues [13] and [21]. The total ginsenoside content and composition of each sample were analyzed three times. The 99% pure ginsenoside standards used in this experiment were purchased from Chromadex and the Ambo Institute. For the experiment, the Waters 1525 binary HPLC system (Waters, Milford, MA, USA) and the Eurospher O-methylated flavonoid 100-5 C 18 column (3 × 250 mm; Knauer, Berlin, Germany) were used. The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile (HPLC grade) and distilled water (HPLC grade). The content of acetonitrile was sequentially

increased from 17% to 30% (35 min), from 30% to 40% (60 min), from 40% to 60% (100 min), from 60% to 80% (110 min), from 80% to 80% (120 min), from 80% to 100% (125 min), from 100% to 100% (135 min), and finally from 100% back to 17% (140 min, lasting for 5 min). The operating temperature was at room temperature and the flow rate was 0.8 mL/min. The elution profile on the chromatogram was obtained by using a UV/VIS detector at 203 nm (Waters 2487 dual λ absorbance detector; Waters) (Fig. 1A). The n-BuOH fraction (60 g) was chromatographed on a silica gel column (1 kg) with eluting solvents of CHCl3-MeOH-H2O (70:30:4) to obtain six subfractions (F1–F5). The F4 fraction (2.59 g) was further subjected to octadecylsilane (ODS) (C-18) column chromatography (500 g, 60% acetonitrile) to provide Rg5 (0.19 g) ( Fig. 1B). Ginsenoside Rg5: FAB–MS (negative); m/z: 465.48 [M-H]−, 603.6 [M-Glu]; 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR; pyridine-d6, 500 MHz ): δ 39.76 (C-1), 28.6 (C-2), 89.42 (C-3), 40.75 (C-4), 56.89 (C-5), 18.93 (C-6), 35.84 (C-7), 40.21 (C-8), 51.26 (C-9), 37.51 (C-10), 32.72 (C-11), 73.08 (C-12), 50.