In addition to this effect on forest health, PPM caterpillars hav

In addition to this effect on forest health, PPM caterpillars have urticating hairs, and may therefore cause health problems for people living in newly colonized urban areas ( Battisti et al., 2011). Monitoring and pest management actions are therefore required on a regular basis, to ensure the detection, evaluation Galunisertib and mitigation of potential risks to forest and public health ( Jactel et al., 2006 and Cayuela et al., 2011). However, we still lack some of the basic knowledge required for relevant analyses of the risk posed by PPM. In particular, the mechanisms controlling the distribution of PPM attacks within

and between pine stands remain unknown. Pest risk is defined as a combination of three components: (1) hazard occurrence, which depends on the spatiotemporal dynamics of pest populations; (2) plant vulnerability to hazard, resulting in a certain amount of damage; and (3) the economic impact of damage, depending on the potential value of the plants damaged (Jactel et al., 2012). For the determination of each of these components, we need to know which trees are likely to be attacked by PPM. Conventional population monitoring is based on counts of winter nests built by late-instar larvae of PPM and visible in tree crowns (Geri and Miller, 1985 and Jactel et al., 2006). This sampling method could be improved by better knowledge of the spatial distribution of attacked trees, both between Regorafenib and within

pine stands. It has recently been shown that the frequency of infestation with PPM is higher for trees at the stand edge than for trees at the heart of the stand (Dulaurent et al., 2012), but it remains unclear whether the infested trees are randomly distributed or aggregated within stands (Arnaldo and Torres, 2005). Feeny (1970) coined the term “plant apparency” to describe the likelihood of a plant being identified by its herbivore enemies. This original definition as been extended to include two key features underlying plant apparency (Castagneyrol et al., 2013): the individual size, color or odor of the plant, and PRKACG its relative abundance within the plant community. At the stand scale, the probability of an individual tree being attacked

by PPM would be expected to decrease with increasing tree numbers, i.e. in denser stands, due to a dilution process, as reported by Geri and Miller (1985). At the individual tree scale, the probability of attack is generally dependent on the insect’s perception of the physical or chemical cues provided by the host tree. Insect herbivores may locate host trees through visual cues ( Prokopy and Owens, 1983), such as tree color ( Goyer et al., 2004 and Campbell and Borden, 2009) or shape. For example, Dulaurent et al. (2012) showed that the planting broadleaved hedgerows next to pine stands reduced the number of attacks on the pines growing behind the hedgerow. The magnitude of this effect was dependent on the relative heights of the pines and the broadleaved hedge trees.

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