The current quercetin dosage was selected since mice have been previously shown
to tolerate and respond to this concentration (28). Exercise is well known to help reduce plaque formation ; however, earlier work by Parthasarathy’s group did not find significant reduction in the aortic plaque formation in exercising LDL receptor-deficient mice supplemented with vitamin E . Moreover, it appears that vitamin E offset the beneficial effects of exercise by preventing the induction of aortic catalase activity and endothelial NO synthase expression . The duration of this study was 30 days, which was sufficient to allow fatty streaks and plaque development to resemble early atherosclerosis development. We also chosen low intensity exercise regimen to provide the opportunity to study the effect of the combination of quercetin with low intensity exercise on the plaque formation. In the current study, CX-4945 order we observed a 64-79% reduction in plaque formation in all treatment groups compared to control. Exercise alone greatly reduced plaque formation. Conversely quercetin supplementation alone and with exercise resulted in similar reductions of plaque formation. This outcome suggests a strong anti-athrogenic role for quercetin supplementation. To further investigate the mechanisms that may have contributed MM-102 supplier to the reduced plaque
formation, we measured plasma lipids, selected this website cytokines, and we assessed certain genes expression in mouse livers. Interestingly there were no significant changes in the plasma lipids
profiles (data not shown). There was a slight increase in the plasma TNF-α levels in the treated groups ALOX15 compared to control, however, the changes between the group on the quercetin supplementation alone and the control was the only difference in TNF-α that was significant. It is not clear why this difference was observed considering the known anti-inflammatory role for quercetin. Plasma MCP-1 levels on the other hand slightly decreased with exercise or quercetin supplementation alone greatly decreased with the combination of the exercise and quercetin supplementation. MCP-1 is critical for the initiation and development of atherosclerotic lesions. It is known to participate in the progression of atherosclerosis, by promoting direct migration of inflammatory cells to the vascular wall. MCP-1 has also been detected in atherosclerotic lesions using specific antibodies . It appears quercetin supplementation alone or combined with exercise has potent anti-MCP-1 effects. Plasma IL-17α levels decreased with exercise or quercetin supplementation alone and slightly increased with the combination of the two. IL-17α plays an important pro-inflammatory role in atherosclerotic plaque development. Interestingly plasma IL-17α levels were decreased with exercise or quercetin intake but not with the combination.