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in cardiac and skeletal muscles. J Jilin Institute of Phys Educ 2010,26(5):83–85. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions GL: dissertation guidance, interpretation of the data and and drafted the manuscript; ZZ: randomization of the protocol training of animals, literature review; YL: molecular biology Proteasome inhibitor assays; LZ: ELISA assays assistance and biochemical assays; YW: paper revise; XZ: animal training assistance; All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background There is strong evidence that appropriate selection of nutrients, timing of intake, and proper supplement choice are associated with optimal health and exercise performance . During exercise, carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation is one of the most popular dietary recommendations to provide energy to skeletal muscles and the central nervous system [1–6]. Further, to ensure proper CHO delivery to the contracting skeletal muscles, the American College of Sports Medicine along with the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) (formerly recognized as the American Dietetic Association) each recommend ingestion of a CHO solution during prolonged
exercise [1, 5]. This recommendation is supported by early empirical evidence regarding the positive effects others of CHO supplementation to enhance endurance exercise performance [7, 8]. However, even though a tennis match encompasses a long total period of time, the overall exercise requirements of a match differ from traditional endurance exercise. To illustrate, a tennis match involves intermittent bouts of high-intensity effort interspersed with periods of low-intensity activity, during which active recovery (between points) and passive periods (between changeover breaks in play) take place (20 s), over an extended period of time [9–11]. In the major international tournaments (e.g. Grand Slam events and Davis Cup), male players may play several matches within a relatively short period of time (i.e. <2 hours), however, some matches may extend to greater than 5 hours.