For all drugs and dosages, the most popular choice was increasing

For all drugs and dosages, the most popular choice was increasing the dosage, followed by augmenting with lithium or another antidepressant, or changing to a different drug. Conclusion The question of nonresponse is clearly important and has to be considered within the recent evolution of psychiatric classification and treatment. First, traditional classifications are being increasingly criticized for failing to define learn more homogeneous patient groups, who might respond in a predictable

way to a specific treatment. The fact that psychiatric classification is in a state of flux is exemplified by the ongoing revision process of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical DSM. Research in neuroscience is expected to play a major part in the preparation of DSM-V.35 The necessity for a classification that could better guide treatment choice is manifest. Second, psychopharmacology is changing. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical There is an evolution from drugs directed at symptoms toward drugs directed at syndromes and the pathophysiology Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of psychiatric disorders. New drugs

are being evaluated for their overall efficacy, eg, for their efficacy on syndromes and cognition, rather than on a single symptom. More is required today from treatment methods. Patients and clinicians are no longer satisfied with a mere reduction in symptoms. Etiological treatment is an ideal; in some cases, this ideal might become reality. The notion

of nonresponse is best understood in its historical dimension. Our opinion is still influenced by traditional thought patterns. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical However, nonresponse is likely to be envisaged quite differently in the near future. A few tasks will remain crucial, such as the definition of criteria for treatment response, and the delineation of factors that exert a negative influence on drug efficacy. The problem of nonresponse Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical exists in all domains of medicine. It is crucial for patients and their families to understand that the physicians did ail they could and offered the best available treatments to patients who remained nonresponders.
One of the elusive goals of pharmacotherapy is the ability to identify the relevant characteristics of a. patient with a particular disorder in such a way as to permit, selection of the best pharmacological Resminostat agent: the medication with the greatest, likelihood of effectiveness and the least, likelihood of adverse or undesirable effects. Despite the considerable number of treatments in our psychotherapeutic armamentarium, any individual treatment applied to a group of persons with a given disorder will leave an un acceptably high percentage nonresponsive, again consequent, to lack of efficacy or inability to tolerate the treatment. To increase the odds of therapeutic success, it.

ATP can induce a P2Y1-mediated release of adenosine from Müller c

ATP can induce a P2Y1-mediated release of adenosine from Müller cells that inhibits their swelling in

tissues submitted to hypotonic conditions (Uckermann et al., 2006). Activation of P2Y1 receptors check details is also involved in Müller cell gliosis after ouabain-induced cell injury in the fish retina (Battista et al., 2009). Although ATP is released from Müller cells when calcium transients are induced in the retina (Newman, 2001), the mechanism by which these cells release this nucleotide is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the release of ATP from Müller glia cells of the chick embryo retina by examining quinacrine staining and by measuring the extracellular levels of ATP in purified Müller glia cultures. Our data revealed that glial cells could be labeled with quinacrine, a reaction that was prevented by incubation of the cells with bafilomycin A1, a potent inhibitor of vacuolar ATPases. Moreover, 50 mM KCl, glutamate and kainate were able to decrease quinacrine staining in the cells as well as to increase the extracellular levels of ATP in the medium. Glutamate-induced rise in extracellular ATP was completely blocked by the glutamatergic antagonists DNQX and MK-801, as well as by BAPTA-AM and bafilomycin A1, suggesting that glutamate, through activation of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors, induces the release of ATP from retinal Müller selleck chemicals llc cells through a calcium-dependent exocytotic mechanism.

Glutamine, penicillin-G, streptomycin Modulators sulfate, glutamate, kainate, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), dizocilpine maleate (MK-801), BAPTA-AM, EGTA, quinacrine, Evans blue were from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA); ATP determination kit, MEM, Fetal Bovine Serum, Life Technologies Inc.; trypsin, Worthington Biochemical (Freehold, NJ, USA); all other reagents were of analytical grade. The use of animals was in accordance with the “NIH guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” and approved by the department’s Resminostat commission for animal care. Glial cultures were obtained according to a previous published procedure (Cossenza and Paes De Carvalho, 2000). Retinas from White-Leghorn chick embryos

were used and monolayer retinal cultures enriched in glial cells prepared. Neuroretinas from 8-day-old embryos were dissected from other structures of the eye and immediately transferred to 1 mL of Ca2+ and Mg2+-free balanced salt solution (CMF). Trypsin, at a final concentration of 0.1%, was added and the suspension incubated at 37 °C for 20–25 min. Trypsin solution was removed and the retinas resuspended in MEM containing 5% fetal calf serum, 2 mM glutamine, 100 U/mL penicillin and 100 mg/mL streptomycin. The tissues were mechanically dissociated by successive aspirations of the medium. For quinacrine staining experiments, the cells were seeded at a density of 2.5 × 103 cells/mm2 on 40 mm plastic Petri dishes. For experiments measuring the extracellular levels of ATP, cells were seeded on 4-well dishes, at the same density.

Using this criterion, no significant increase of OC illness among

Using this criterion, no significant increase of OC illness among first-degree relatives of 144 obsessional neurotics was observed, although an increased rate of psychiatric illness among these relatives was reported. Unfortunately, no information about OC symptomatology among relatives who were not hospitalized was provided. Direct interview family studies Subsequent to 1986, all family studies collected direct interview from at least some of the relatives in the family. With the exception of one study,52 all available relatives were

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical directly interviewed. In the study by McKeon and Murray52 all family members of adult probands with OCD were given the Leyton Obsessional Inventory (LOI), and only those relatives who scored high on the LOI were directly interviewed. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Only one of the interviewed relatives met criteria for OC neurosis, suggesting that the disorder is not familial. It is possible that some relatives with OCD may not have been identified with this ascertainment scheme. Low scores on

the LOI can be observed in individuals having only a few obsessions and/or compulsions which consume significant time and cause considerable distress Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and result in a diagnosis of OCD. Thus, it is possible that some of the noninterviewed relatives could have scored low on the LOI yet still met criteria for a diagnosis of OCD. In should be noted, however, that these investigators did observe an increased rate of mental illness Enzalutamide nmr overall Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical among the relatives of these OCD probands. The remaining 15 family studies of OCD interviewed all available first-degree relatives with structured psychiatric interviews.38,40-41,53-65 In some of these studies, additional information was obtained from all interviewed relatives about the presence of OCD in all of their first-degree relatives; even those relatives that had been directly interviewed. Thus, both direct interview data and family history data were available for all interviewed individuals in those Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical family studies. Table II Family studies of OCD. The rates shown refer to the

frequency of these conditions among first-degree relatives. While there were some inconsistent results, most of these studies provided data that are consistent with the hypothesis that some forms of OCD are familial else (Table II). In seven studies ascertainment was through children and/or adolescents with OCD (Table II). In the remaining eight studies, ascertainment was through adults with OCD (Table II). Studies of families ascertained through child/adolescent probands In all of the studies in which all available relatives of children and/or adolescents with OCD were interviewed,40-41,61-65 the rates of OCD and subclinical OCD were significantly higher than the population prevalence and/or the rate obtained in controls assessed in the same way.

This could be due to severe respiratory and heart diseases among

This could be due to severe respiratory and heart diseases among the vulnerable elderly population, which make up the 70% of P1 cases, and as reported by other studies [16-18]. On the other hand, PSI > 50 was significantly inversely correlated with P3 attendances; i.e. fewer P3 attendances on days with high PSI. Singapore’s national advisory on days

with moderate to poor PSI follow that of US EPA; to reduce outdoor Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical activities especially among those with compromised heart and lung conditions. Reduced outdoor activities during days of bad PSI may possibly account for this as attendances for trauma associated with minor accidents also decreased. There were predictable higher weekly attendances on Sundays and Mondays, contributed by P3 cases. This is attributed by the closure of primary care facilities, mainly of the public sector on Sundays and public holidays; and the build-up of demand on Mondays. Similarly public holidays were also strongly correlated with higher P3 attendances when Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the primary care facilities are closed. There were also higher monthly attendances from May to July, contributed by P3 cases. This is attributed to the perennial seasonal dengue outbreaks and mid-year influenza activity. Similar modeling and predicting framework can be

extended to time series analysis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of different intervals, such as hourly, weekly, monthly or yearly, as well as for different disease groups. The model’s performance is based on historical trends. It is imperative for the forecasts to be iterative and updated regularly as more data is available in order to improve the prediction performance. In Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical this case, the model is updated 3-monthly and the framework has been put into practice, where the model is run weekly to forecast the workload the following Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical week. The forecasts have been used by the ED management to plan its staff deployment on a weekly base. In addition to the immediate weekly forecasts, the model has also been used to plan longer term ahead. The study has shown higher daily P3 attendances

due to the seasonal dengue and influenza outbreaks mid-year. Moreover, there were also higher P1 and P3 attendances Thymidine kinase associated with high PSI readings caused by transboundary air pollution from the seasonal forest fires in neighboring check details countries. These secular annual forecasts help the department plan staff headcounts and budget allocation a year in advance. The study has helped us understand the factors associated with variation of daily ED attendances in a local setting and develop a model to forecast the daily attendances. To our knowledge, it is the first such study in Singapore. This study suffers from a few limitations. One is that there may be other factors affecting the daily ED attendances, like the availability of other primary care facilities and their workload which may predict ED attendances. Another limitation is the use of average daily temperature.

Female gender and presence of cardiac disease were associated wit

Female gender and presence of cardiac disease were associated with a larger extent of underestimation. Table 1 Differences between left ventricular volumes and function assessed by three-dimensional echocardiography and conventional two-dimensional echocardiography in comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance As a rule, good image quality is a prerequisite for an accurate quantitation of global LV function

using semi- or automated border detection algorithms. A manual editing of the automatically-identified endocardial surface may be required in order to ensure an accurate quantitative analysis, particularly in patients with suboptimal image quality.2),20) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Some authors reported that LV volume measurements by 3DE are less when less than 60% of the endocardial border is visualized;21) in this setting, the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical use of contrast may improve the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements.22),23)

Simultaneous LV shape analysis (i.e. 3D sphericity index) is provided from the endocardial 3D surface reconstruction: as the LV becomes more globular, the sphericity index approaches unity. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, 3DE derived sphericity index has been demonstrated to be an earlier and more accurate predictor of LV remodeling than other clinical, electrocardiographic, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and echocardiographic variables.24) By adding an automated detection of the LV epicardial surface and applying 3D speckle-tracking analysis within the LV myocardial wall delimited between the endocardial and epicardial surfaces, additional parameters can be obtained from the same 3D data set: LV mass (Fig. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 9), as well as myocardial deformation components (longitudinal, circumferential, radial and area strain) (Fig. 10). Fig. 9 Left ventricular mass measurement

using three-dimensional echocardiography. Using automated or Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical semi-automated endocardial and epicardial boundary detection endocardial and epicardial volumes are measured (A). By subtracting the left ventricular cavity … Fig. 10 Three-dimensional speckle-tracking analysis of left ventricular longitudinal myocardial deformation using two different find more platforms. Results can be displayed as bull’s eye plots (A) and/or time-strain curves (B). Left ventricular mass calculations by M-mode and 2DE are subject to the same limitations next in reproducibility and accuracy affecting LV size and function. Several comparative studies (Table 2)4),16),18),25-30) have proven that 3DE is more accurate than M-mode or 2DE methods to calculate LV mass when CMR was used as reference standard. Inter-observer and test/re-test reproducibility were also improved by the 3DE approach.4) More accurate measurements of LV mass may facilitate its use as a surrogate outcome marker in trials involving antihypertensive medications.

pertussis as an important causative agent of respiratory disease

pertussis as an important causative agent of respiratory disease in age groups beyond childhood, as well as the recognition that older age cohorts may serve as a reservoir for transmission to infants, particularly those who are too young to be adequately protected by immunization and who are at greatest risk for disease complications, all point to the potential benefit of booster doses for adolescents and adults. In order to approach the problem, Paclitaxel several countries, in accordance with the Global Pertussis Initiative [29] and [30], have introduced acellular booster doses for older age groups. Likewise, in Israel, the age Libraries distribution of pertussis notifications

has recently led to the introduction of an additional booster dose at school age. However, to date, it is not clear what the long-term impact of the introduction of additional booster doses on the transmission of B. pertussis to younger at-risk age cohorts will be. Hence, given the limitations of other trend monitoring methods, the present findings and the developed

serological tool may serve as a valuable and less biased means for continuous follow up assessments of the epidemiology of pertussis, particularly in view of the recently employed booster strategy. None. Thanks are due to Mr. Ruslan Gosinov for management of morbidity data. “
“Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the prototype virus of Birnaviridae family and Aquabirnavirus genus, is a non-enveloped icosahedric

virus of around 60 nm of diameter with two double-stranded RNA INCB018424 segments, A and B [1]. The larger segment (segment A, 3092 bp) contains two open reading frames. The short one encodes a 17 kDa polypeptide identified only in infected cells and not in purified virions while the long open reading frame encodes a 106 kDa polyprotein (NH2–VP2–VP4 VP3–COOH), which is cotranslationally (during translation) cleaved by a viral protease that is contained within the polyprotein (designated NS or VP4) into pVP2 (62 kDa) and VP3 (31 kDa); pVP2 is further processed during virus maturation into VP2 (54 kDa), which is the major capsid polypeptide and type-specific antigen. VP3 is an internal capsid protein and a group-specific antigen [2]. On the other hand, segment B (2777 nucleotides) encodes a minor internal VP1 protein, 94 kDa, that is the virion-associated RNA polymerase [3]. IPNV was firstly described Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase associated to pathological signs in book trout, Salvelinus fontinalis [4]. Whilst it was originally found to be associated only with small salmonids (<5 g), nowadays is also present in larger fish and in many freshwater and seawater fish species such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), being a serious problem for modern aquaculture [5] and [6]. The virus is very contagious and destructive to juvenile rainbow trout causing up to 70% mortality in hatchery stocks, mainly at fingerling stages [4] and [6].

The third trial (Pasila et al) was not comparable to the other tw

The third trial (Pasila et al) was not comparable to the other two trials as the intervention was implemented to non-splinted joints during the immobilisation period. Proximal humeral fractures: There is preliminary evidence from a single trial that adding supervised exercise to a home exercise program may reduce upper limb activity, and increase impairment BKM120 in vitro in the short term after proximal humeral fracture

when compared with home exercise alone. Compared to supervised exercise in a swimming pool (20 classes of 30 minutes duration) plus home exercise, a control group performing home exercise only demonstrated improvement at two months in self-reported assessments including taking an object from a shelf (SMD –1.02, 95% CI –1.61 to –0.40), hanging the laundry (SMD –0.65, 95% CI –1.22 to –0.06), washing the opposite axilla (SMD selleck chemicals –0.70, 95% CI –1.27 to –0.10) and making a bed (SMD –0.78, 95% CI –1.35 to –0.18) ( Revay et al 1992). The control group also had greater improvements in active shoulder abduction, flexion, and internal rotation at 2 months, and active shoulder

abduction and internal rotation at 3 months were also reported. There were no significant betweengroup differences at one year follow up. Modulators Distal radius fractures: No trials examined starting exercise earlier after immobilisation compared with delayed exercise after distal radius fracture. Proximal humeral fractures: There is evidence that starting

exercise earlier after conservatively managed proximal humeral fractures can reduce pain in the short term and improve shoulder activity in the short and medium term ( Figure 3). The trials by Hodgson et al (2003) and Lefevre-Colau et al (2007) started exercise Amisulpride within the first week after fracture compared to starting exercise at 3 weeks. Meta-analysis was not conducted as the two trials differed in that Lefevre-Colau et al (2007) included other physiotherapy modalities in addition to supervised exercise and home exercise program in both the intervention and control groups. At one year follow-up, total shoulder disability as measured on the Croft Shoulder Disability Questionnaire was 43% compared to 73% in the early exercise group compared to the delayed exercise group ( Hodgson et al 2007). In one trial involving surgically managed proximal humeral fractures, starting exercise earlier did not improve shoulder activity (Figure 3). Agorastides et al (2007) included more severe fracture types (Neer 3- and 4-part fractures) managed by hemiarthroplasty, comparing exercises started at 2 weeks with exercises started after 6 weeks immobilisation. There were no significant between-group differences on the Constant Shoulder Assessment Score or Oxford Score.

The compatibility of MRI with implanted devices such as pace-make

The compatibility of MRI with implanted devices such as pace-makers and implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) is also an important consideration in performing interventional MRI studies in the electrophysiology patient population. Particular concerns include static magnetic field-induced movement of the device and scanning-induced programming changes, device inhibition, activation of tachyarrhythmia therapies, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and lead currents leading to heating or cardiac stimulation.103–106 Modern devices address some of these concerns with the use of less ferromagnetic material and improved resistance to electromagnetic interference.107 A number of devices have been carefully studied during in-vitro and

animal MR imaging, and experience is growing for safe cardiac MRI scanning in patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with selected devices under controlled scanning conditions.25,107,108 This experience includes use of sequences relevant to modern CMR with SAR characteristics similar to those used for real-time MRI.25 Still, the number of patients

and devices studied thus far is limited, and further work is needed to develop manufacturer protocols for establishing conditional MRI safety of pace-makers and ICDs. Carefully designed protocols for patient selection, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical monitoring, and scanning also need to be developed before imaging of patients with devices can be more routinely performed. The impact of device-related artifacts on cardiac image interpretation also needs to be more carefully studied. CONCLUSION Increasing knowledge of the anatomic basis for cardiac arrhythmias has extended the role of catheter ablation to curing even complex Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical rhythms such as atrial fibrillation and scar-based ventricular tachycardia. CMR has demonstrated a number of uses for procedural planning, particularly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for treatment of atrial fibrillation. The use of DEMRI for planning VT ablation procedures also shows promise. Real-time CMR combined with intra-procedural lesion imaging

could allow physicians to accurately guide devices and establish completeness of ablation lines without concern for radiation exposure. This could significantly improve the way current ablation procedures are performed and open the way to ablative cure of arrhythmias such as permanent atrial fibrillation that ALOX15 currently respond poorly to minimally invasive approaches.7 Abbreviations: AF atrial fibrillation; CMR cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; CT computed tomography; DEMRI delayed enhancement MRI; DECMR delayed enhancement CMR; EP electrophysiology; fps frames per second; ICE Intracardiac echocardiography; MRA MRI angiography; MRI magnetic resonance imaging; MVT monomorphic ventricular tachycardia; PV pulmonary vein; RF radiofrequency; SR specific absorption rate; true-FISP true fast imaging with steady-state precession; VT ventricular tachycardia. Footnotes Conflict of interest: No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

15 Thirteen never-psychotic

and non-spectrum disorder rel

15 Thirteen never-psychotic

and non-spectrum disorder relatives of schizophrenic patients and 12 matched normal controls were compared. All subjects were less than 55 years of age and had standard scores on a reading test of at. least 80 (ie, at. least the lownormal range). Relatives were significantly impaired on working memory tasks with interference. The tasks produced activation in the lateral and medial frontal cortex, the posterior parietal and precuneal cortex, and the thalamus in both groups. The most striking finding from these data is the difference in the number of regions activated and the extent of regional activations (number Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of “voxels”) in relatives compared with the controls. Across the three tasks, the relatives had a greater number of activations, representing significantly more activated voxels than the controls. On working memory and memory plus interference tasks, activation was more bilaterally distributed in relatives than in controls. As relatives also perform worse on these cognitive tasks, these large Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and extraneous activations in relatives may represent: (i) compensatory exertion of inefficient neural circuitry in attempting to perform an effortful task to produce accurate output; and/or (ii) abnormal

connectivity in the circuitry required to perform these tasks. These functional data complement the structural Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical MRI abnormalities and suggest that adult relatives of schizophrenic patients have brain abnormalities, possibly associated with abnormal genes. Effects of genetic loading on verbal memory and hippocampal volume in relatives Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Following up the above findings of stability in measures of verbal memory and attention in nonpsychotic relatives

of schizophrenic patients, we compared individuals with one schizophrenic first-degree relative (simplex families) to individuals with two schizophrenic first-degree relatives (multiplex families).16 Relatives from simplex families performed significantly less well on immediate memory (from the logical memory test) compared with controls, while relatives from multiplex families performed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical significantly worse on immediate and delayed logical memory, immediate visual reproductions, and estimated intelligence, compared with controls. Relatives from multiplex families also had a significantly Histone demethylase poorer performance than relatives from simplex families on immediate and delayed logical memories, immediate visual reproductions, and estimated intelligence. These results are consistent with the idea that neuropsychological deficits in relatives of patients with schizophrenia reflect their degree of genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. This relationship was also evident in analyses of structural brain volumes. As described above, relatives show reduced hippocampal Nutlin3a volumes compared with controls.13,17 More recently, we found reductions in left. (but. not right.

However, no phytochemical and biological studies have been report

However, no phytochemical and biological studies have been reported on B. lamium. As a continuation of our chemical and biological studies of Cameroonian medicinal plants,8-13 we have investigated the CH2Cl2: MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial part of B. lamium, and have reported herein the isolation of a mixture of three sterols and four

pure compounds together with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Materials and Methods Plant Material The aerial parts of B. lamium Benth, were collected in January Korup, South-west region of (figure 1). The botanical identification of the plant was done at the National Herbarium, , (voucher specimen No. 34376/HNC). The plant material was air-dried at room temperature and ground into fine powder. Figure

1 Aerial parts of Brillantaisia lamium Microorganisms The test microorganisms included three bacteria and two fungi. They were mostly reference Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical strains obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, ): Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25922, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC10541, Salmonella typhi ATCC6539, Candida Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical albicans ATCC9002 and Candida tropicalis ATCC750. Also included, were one clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis and one strain of Cryptococcus neoformans IP95026 collected from Pasteur Institute of Yaoundé () and Paris () respectively. They were maintained at +4°C on Agar slants in the Laboratory of Microbiology and Antimicrobial Substances (LAMAS) of the Faculty of Sciences, , where the antimicrobial tests were performed. The strains were subcultured on fresh appropriate agar

plate 24 hours prior to any antimicrobial test. Extraction, Fractionation and Isolation of Compounds Previously dried and powdered aerial parts of B. lamium () were macerated with CH2Cl2: MeOH (1:1 v/v) (3 × , 72 hours) at room temperature Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (25±1°C) to obtain a crude extract () after evaporation of solvent under reduced pressure at 40°C. One hundred and seventy nine grams () of this extract were successively extracted Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with n-hexane (), followed by CH2Cl2 (). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis showed that the n-hexane and CH2Cl2 extracts were qualitatively the same. They were thus combined and a portion of was subjected to silica gel column chromatography (Ø x L ) and eluted with mTOR inhibitor n-hexane-EtOAc (10:0, 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 1:1 and 0:10 each ) and EtOAc-MeOH (10:0, 19:1, 9:1 and 0:10 each ). Fifty five others fractions of 300 ml each were collected and combined on the basis of TLC profile to give five major fractions A – E (A: 1–12; B: 13–25; C: 26–38; D: 39–45; E: 46–55). Fraction A () contained mostly fatty material and was not further investigated. Fraction B () was purified on a silica gel column (Ø × L ) with n-hexane-EtOAc (10:0, 90:10 and 9:1 each ) to afford lupeol (2) (20 mg; Rf=0.60, n-hexane-EtOAc, 9:1) and a mixture of campesterol (5), stigmasterol (6) and β-sitosterol (7) (22 mg; Rf=0.53, n-hexane-EtOAc, 9:1) in an estimated proportion of 1:4:1.50 (GC-MS).