However, the development of such vaccines is impaired due to the extensive polymorphism in human leukocyte antigens (HLA). The identification of universal T-cell epitopes, with promiscuous profiles of interaction with MHC class II molecules, enhances the possibility of developing subunit vaccines that could elicit immune responses in heterogeneous populations . This Metformin will result in efficient response that transcends the barrier imposed by HLA polymorphism . The use of in silico tools for mining such peptides circumvents the expensive and laborious experimental screening methods . Because of their variable size, the
prediction of peptides binding to HLA class II is more challenging as compared to HLA class I. HLA class II binding peptides
are 9–22 amino acids long; with a binding core of 9 amino acids containing the primary anchor residues. P. vivax merozoite surface protein 9 (PvMSP9) is a vaccine candidate that is expressed during schizogony and becomes organized on the surface of merozoites in the course of schizont development and segmentation. The P. vivax, P. cynomolgi and P. knowlesi msp-9 gene have typical eukaryotic signal peptides and diverse repeated motifs present immediately upstream of their termination codon. Another feature conserved among these proteins, including the P. falciparum this website MSP9 protein, is the positions of four cysteine residues near the N-terminus, suggesting this 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl conservation
maintains structural and perhaps functional characteristics in the MSP9 family. Rabbit polyclonal antisera raised against recombinantly expressed N-termini of P. knowlesi and P. vivax MSP9 cross-react with the counterpart proteins in immunofluorescence and immunoblot assays  and . We have reported that PvMSP9 contains B- and T-cell epitopes recognized by antibodies and T cells from individuals naturally exposed to P. vivax in the Brazilian Amazon . Five synthetic peptides derived from the N-terminus of PvMSP9 stimulated T cells to secrete IFN-γ and IL-4 in from natives from the study population and a migrant population from a malaria free region of Brazil. In the present study we report the identification of peptide sequences containing promiscuous HLA class II epitopes derived from PvMSP9 that are capable of stimulating T cells from donors expressing various HLA genotypes and with confirmed exposure to P. vivax infections. A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted involving 142 individuals from communities in the malaria endemic region of Rondonia state, Brazil, where P. vivax malaria accounts for more than 70% of all malaria cases in the last five years (Brazilian Ministry of Health ).