All rights reserved.”
“Background: The chromodomain helicase DNA binding domain (CHD) proteins modulate gene expression via their ability to remodel chromatin structure and influence histone acetylation. Recent studies have shown that CHD2 protein plays a critical role in embryonic development, tumor suppression and survival. Like other genes encoding members of the
CHD family, pathogenic mutations in the CHD2 gene are expected to be implicated CYT387 solubility dmso in human disease. In fact, there is emerging evidence suggesting that CHD2 might contribute to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite growing evidence, a description of the full phenotypic spectrum of this condition is lacking. Methods: We conducted a multicentre study to identify and PLX3397 order characterise the clinical features associated with haploinsufficiency of CHD2. Patients with deletions of this gene were identified from among broadly ascertained clinical cohorts undergoing genomic microarray analysis for developmental delay, congenital anomalies and/or autism spectrum disorder.
Results: Detailed clinical assessments by clinical geneticists showed recurrent clinical symptoms, including developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy, behavioural problems and autism-like features without characteristic facial gestalt or brain malformations observed on magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parental analysis showed that the deletions affecting CHD2 were de novo in all four patients, and analysis of high-resolution microarray data derived from 26,826 unaffected controls showed no deletions of this gene. Conclusions: The results of this study, in addition to our review of the literature, support a causative role of CHD2 haploinsufficiency in developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy and behavioural problems, Selisistat supplier with phenotypic variability between individuals.”
“1,4-Naphthoquinone derivatives are known to have relevant activities against several parasites.
Among the treatment options for malaria, atovaquone, a 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative, is widely applied in the treatment and prophylaxis of such disease. Based on the structure simplification of atovaquone, we designed and synthesized four novel naphthoquinoidal derivatives. The compounds were obtained by the underexplored epoxide-opening reaction of 1,4-naphthoquinone using aniline derivatives as nucleophiles. The antiplasmodial activity of the synthesized compounds was performed in vivo using Peter’s 4 days suppression test. Significant parasitemia reduction and increased survival were observed for some of the compounds. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Isoquinoline-based non-nucleoside inhibitors of HCV NS5b RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase are described. The synthesis and structure-activity relationships are detailed, along with enzyme and cellular activity. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) belongs to the MEF2 transcription factors.
AMPAR synaptic strength is also associated with a shift toward inward rectification of synaptic currents and increased expression of GluR1, but not GluR2, subunits, suggesting augmented membrane incorporation of GluR1-contaming, GluR2-lacking AMPARs. To test SCH727965 this hypothesis, the postsynaptic incorporation of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits in CA1 neurons after FZP withdrawal was examined by postembedding immunogold quantitative electron microscopy. The percentage of GluR1 positively labeled stratum radiatum (SR) synapses was significantly increased in FZP-withdrawn rats (88.2% +/- 2.2%) compared with controls (74.4% +/- 1.9%). In addition, GluR1 immunogold density was significantly EPZ004777 nmr increased by 30% in SR synapses in CA1 neurons from FZP-withdrawn rats compared with control rats (FZP: 14.1 +/- 0.3 gold particles/mu m; CON: 10.8 +/- 0.4 gold particles/mu m). In contrast, GluR2 immunogold density was not significantly different between groups. Taken together with recent functional data from our laboratory, the current study suggests that the enhanced glutamatergic strength at CA1 neuron synapses during benzodiazepine withdrawal is mediated by increased incorporation of GluR1-containing AMPARs. Mechanisms underlying
synaptic plasticity in this model of drug dependence are therefore fundamentally similar to those that operate during activity-dependent plasticity. J. Comp. Neurol. 511:832-846, 2008. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“In this study we
investigated whether polymorphisms in the folate pathway influenced the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or the survival rate of the patients. For this we selected STI571 ic50 and genotyped 67 SNPs in 15 genes in the folate pathway in 543 children with ALL and 529 controls. The results were evaluated by gender adjusted logistic regression and by the Bayesian network based Bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA) methods. Bayesian structure based odds ratios for the relevant variables and interactions were also calculated. Altogether 9 SNPs in 8 genes were associated with altered susceptibility to ALL. After correction for multiple testing, two associations remained significant. The genotype distribution of the MTHFD1 rs1076991 differed significantly between the ALL and control population. Analyzing the subtypes of the disease the GG genotype increased only the risk of B-cell ALL (p = 3.52 x 10(-4); OR = 2.00). The GG genotype of the rs3776455 SNP in the MTRR gene was associated with a significantly reduced risk to ALL (p = 1.21 x 10(-3); OR = 0.55), which resulted mainly from the reduced risk to B-cell and hyperdiploid-ALL. The TC genotype of the rs9909104 SNP in the SHMT1 gene was associated with a lower survival rate comparing it to the TT genotype (80.2% vs. 88.8%; p = 0.01).
“(Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 2499-2500).”
“Objectives: To assess glycerol as reference material for low-resolution time-domain H-1 NMR analysis of fecal fat.\n\nDesign and methods: NMR analysis of fecal fat in stool samples with added glycerol was used to assess linearity, recovery, and relationship with NMR lipid signal.\n\nResults: The study revealed for added glycerol excellent linearity
(r = 0.9998), recovery (101-104%), and linear relationship with simulated fecal fat content.\n\nConclusions: Glycerol is an effective reference material for NMR fecal fat VX-809 purchase analysis. (C) 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: This study sought to document self-reported binge eating in a large sample of severely obese children and to examine the impact of binge eating on changes in percent overweight among children randomized to family-based behavioral treatment (intervention) versus control (usual care).\n\nParticipants and methods: As part of a larger randomized controlled trial, 192 children aged 8-12 years (M = 10.2, s.d. = 1.2) with a mean body mass index (BMI) percentile of 99.2 Ro-3306 manufacturer (s.d. = 0.7) completed
assessments at baseline and 6-, 12-, and 18 months post-randomization. A parent or guardian also participated. Child psychological symptoms, including binge eating, were measured before randomization using self-report questionnaires. Child height and weight were measured at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18 months. The primary study outcome was percent overweight (that is, percent over median BMI for age and sex).\n\nResults: Twenty-two children (11.5%) endorsed binge eating at VX-809 datasheet baseline (Binge Eating Group). Children in the Binge Eating Group were younger and had more depressive, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms, and lower self-esteem than children in the rest of the sample
(No Binge Eating Group). There also were differences between the Binge Eating and No Binge Eating groups with respect to the short-term effects of treatment group assignment on change in percent overweight during the study. Specifically, improvements in percent overweight in the intervention condition relative to usual care were documented in the No Binge Eating Group only. Among children in the Binge Eating Group, those assigned to intervention showed a 2.6% increase in percent overweight, on average, at the completion of acute treatment as compared to an 8.5% decrease among children without binge eating. However, these effects were not maintained during follow-up.\n\nConclusion: Results of this study suggest the importance of considering binge eating in the development of weight management programs for severely obese youth. International Journal of Obesity (2010) 34, 1143-1148; doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.
“Background and objective Children with a solitary functioning kidney may develop CKD. Although widely used, equations to estimate GFR are not validated in these patients. This study sought to determine the precision of common estimating equations in DMH1 research buy the KIMONO (Kidney of MONofunctional Origin) cohort.\n\nDesign, setting, participants, & measurements Two creatinine-based (estimated GFR [eGFR]-Schwartz, urinary creatinine clearance), two cystatin C based (eGFR-Zappitelli1, eGFR-CKiD [Chronic Kidney Disease
in Children] 1), and two cystatin C/creatinine based (eGFR-Zappitelli2, eGFR-CKiD2) estimates were compared with the gold standard GFR measured by inulin single injection (GFR-inulin) in 77 children with a solitary functioning kidney (time span of assembly, 2005-2012). Included patients were 1.5-19.8 years of age. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) classification was compared between GFR-inulin and eGFR methods to analyze misclassification by estimating equations.\n\nResults The eGFR-CKiD2 equation performed best in children with a solitary functioning kidney (mean bias, -0.9 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); 95% and 54% of values within +/- 30% and +/- 10% of GFR-inulin, respectively). Mean
bias for eGFR-Schwartz was 0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), with 90% and 33% of values within +/- 30% and +/- 10% of GFR-inulin, respectively. For all estimates, misclassification in K/DOQI stage ranged from 22% (eGFR-Zappitelli1) to 44% (urinary Navitoclax creatinine clearance) of children.\n\nConclusions Use of a combined serum cystatin C/creatinine based equation (eGFR-CKiD2) is recommended to monitor renal function in children with a solitary functioning kidney. When cystatin C is not routinely available, eGFR-Schwartz should be used. Misclassification in K/DOQI-stage remains a caveat for all equations. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 8: 764-772, 2013. doi: 10.2215/CJN.07870812″
“Yellow fever virus (YFV) causes significant human
disease and mortality in tropical regions of South and Central America and Africa, despite the availability of an effective vaccine. No specific therapy for YF is available. We previously showed that the humanized monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2C9-cIgG provided prophylactic and therapeutic protection from mortality in interferon receptor-deficient strain AG129 mice challenged with YF 17D-204 Evofosfamide vaccine. In this study we tested the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of this MAb against virulent YFV infection in an immunocompetent hamster model. Intraperitoneal (ip) administration of a single dose of MAb 2C9-cIgG 24 h prior to YFV challenge resulted in significantly improved survival rates in animals treated with 380 or 38 mu g of MAb compared to untreated animals. Treatment with the higher dose also resulted in significantly improved weight gain and reductions in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and virus titers in serum and liver.
“O-GlcNAcylation is an inducible, highly dynamic
and reversible posttranslational modification, which regulates numerous cellular processes such as gene expression, translation, immune reactions, protein degradation, proteinprotein interaction, apoptosis, and signal transduction. In contrast to N-linked glycosylation, O-GlcNAcylation does not display a strict amino acid consensus sequence, although serine or threonine residues flanked by proline and valine are preferred sites of O-GlcNAcylation. Based on this information, computational prediction tools of O-GlcNAc sites have been developed. find more Here, we retrospectively assessed the performance of two available O-GlcNAc prediction programs YinOYang 12 server and OGlcNAcScan by comparing their predictions
for recently discovered experimentally Anlotinib chemical structure validated O-GlcNAc sites. Both prediction programs efficiently identified O-GlcNAc sites situated in an environment resembling the consensus sequence P-P-V-[ST]-T-A. However, both prediction programs revealed numerous false negative O-GlcNAc predictions when the site of modification was located in an amino acid sequence differing from the known consensus sequence. By searching for a common sequence motif, we found that O-GlcNAcylation of nucleocytoplasmic proteins preferably occurs at serine and threonine residues flanked downstream by proline and valine and upstream by one to two alanines followed by a stretch of serine and threonine residues. However, O-GlcNAcylation of proteins located in the
mitochondria or in the secretory lumen occurs at different sites and does not follow a distinct consensus sequence. Thus, our study indicates the limitations of the presently available computational prediction methods for O-GlcNAc sites and Sapanisertib suggests that experimental validation is mandatory. Continuously update and further development of available databases will be the key to improve the performance of O-GlcNAc site prediction. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Survival of polyploids in nature depends on several factors, including competition from diploid relatives and increased genetic diversity. Unlike other reported Centaurea polyploid complexes, diploid Centaurea aspera and tetraploid Centaurea seridis coexist in hybrid zones with frequent triploid individuals. The polyploid origin of C. seridis, the genetic diversity and population structure of the three cytotypes, and the degree of genetic differentiation among them were analyzed in seven mixed-ploidy zones, involving different subspecies and ecological conditions. Ploidy was determined by flow cytometry. Microsatellite data suggested an allopolyploid origin of C. seridis. In the contact zones, diploids and tetraploids were genetically differentiated. When compared with the related C. aspera, a low genetic diversity was observed in C.
This study quantified variability in macrofauna, micro-algae, and physical and biochemical properties of sediments over scales from 50 cm to
km, The benthos was most variable at small scales and, even where there were large mean differences in abundance at large scales, these were small compared to the variation from plot to plot along a shore. Only 1 of 24 analyses showed larger variation at the scale of km than that found at 50 cm. Some measures of microphytobenthos showed large variation at the scale of 100s m or more, but other measures of the same flora did not show similar patterns. Concentrations of sand were consistent at different depths and at large scales, but concentrations find more of mud were more variable within than among shores. Neither sand nor mud correlated significantly with most biochemical
properties of sediments. For sediments, variation at the scale of km was only larger than DZNeP that of 50 cm in 13 of 57 analyses. To understand the relative importance of ecological processes in determining distributions and abundances, it is important to get quantitative data on the scales at which organisms or habitats vary. These are the scales at which ecological processes are likely to have large effects because large-scale processes are unlikely to explain variation at much smaller scales. The importance of small-scale variability in sediments
and the associated biota is discussed in terms of sampling protocols for understanding ecological processes, or for assessing impact or restoration.”
“The surface and mechanical properties of hybrid films of waterborne polyurethane (WPU) and fluorinated RG-7112 manufacturer polymethacrylate (FPMA), and high-hydrophobic silica (SiO2) contained hybrid films of FPMA/WPU were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the surfaces of hybrid films exhibited notable fluorine enrichment. Scanning electron microscopy observation demonstrated that micro-scale rough structures consisted of sub-micro papillae and micro-scale wrinkles formed on the surfaces of FPMA/WPU. This was attributed to the enhanced phase separation of WPU and the incompatibility of low-surface-energy FPMA and WPU. Colloidal SiO2 was modified by polydimethylsiloxane and the modified SiO2 was reactive and high-hydrophobic. After the addition of reactive SiO2, the rough structures became micro-scale striped wrinkles studded with nano- and sub-micro papillae formed by the high-hydrophobic SiO2. The combination of the fluorine enrichment and the rough structures accounted for the high hydrophobic FPMA/WPU film and superhydrophobic SiO2/FPMA/WPU film. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The K-ras mutation in pancreatic cancer can inhibit drug delivery and increase drug resistance.
The median RFS of ox-alone (16.8months; 95% CI, 11-25) was not significantly different
from ox-irino (15.7 months; 95% CI, 11-18; P = 0.93). There was no significant difference between median OS of ox-alone (40.83 months; 95% CI, 29-61) and ox-irino (47 months; 95% CI, 32-61; P = 0.94). At 5 years, OS and RFS rates were 41.8% and 13.8% in ox-alone and 42.4% and 14.2% in ox-irino, respectively. Prognostic factors confirmed on multivariate analysis were lymph node metastasis and PCI.\n\nConclusion: Our study showed no advantage of intensification of HIPEC by adding irinotecan, contrary to the results obtained with IV combination. Ox-alone HIPEC should continue as one of the standard HIPEC regimens for PC.”
“In the present study, bioceramic composites with improved mechanical and biological properties were synthesized by sintering mixtures of beta-tricalcium phosphate 3-Methyladenine purchase and SiO(2)-CaO-MgO-P(2)O(5) sol-gel derived bioactive glass at 1000-1200A degrees C. The physical, mechanical, structural and biological
properties of the composites were evaluated by appropriate experiments such as microhardness, bending strength, XRD, SEM and MTT. The results showed that 1000 and 1100A degrees C were not appropriate temperatures for sintering the composites and in contrast, the microhardness, bending strength and bulk density significantly increased Liproxstatin-1 order by increasing in quantity of bioglass phase when the samples were sintered at 1200A degrees C. No significant difference was found between the fracture toughness of the composites and pure beta-tricalcium phosphate. beta-tricalcium phosphate was structurally stable up to 1200A degrees C and did not transform to its alpha form even in BKM120 research buy the presence of the bioglass phase but migration of magnesium cations from the glass composition into its lattice structure was found by right-shift in XRD patterns, especially when the composite contained higher amount of bioglass component. Calcium silicate was also crystallized in the composition of the composites, which was more detectable in higher
sintering temperatures. The results of the MTT test showed that proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells on the composites was considerably better than that of pure beta-TCP.”
“We investigated the difference in survivin expression between a multidrug-resistant lung cancer cell line (H460/cDDP) and its parental counterpart (H460) and the influence of siRNA targeting survivin on the chemosensitivity of H460/cDDP. SiRNA targeting survivin was transfected into H460/cDDP cells using a liposome approach. Survivin mRNA and protein expression were significantly higher in H460/cDDP than H460 cells. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) for cisplatin and paclitaxol in vitro against H460/cDDP cells were significantly lower in cells treated with survivin-specific siRNA than in control cells.
None of them developed clinical evidence of neurocysticercosis or subcutaneous cysts. We conclude that asymptomatic individuals Selleckchem PF-00299804 with circulating cysticercal antigens have a low risk of developing symptomatic cysticercosis within four to five years. (C) 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Effects of sanitizers and. UV light irradiation on foodborne pathogen, Bacillus cereus F4810/72 found on oyster mushroom were investigated
at 10, 30, 50, and 70% ethanol, 100, 500, 1000, 150), and, 2000 ppm hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 20, 60, 100, 150, and 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and UV exposure doses at 6, 96, 216, 360, and 504 mWs/cm(2) were evaluated. The combined sanitizers/UV treatments resulted in greater reductions in bacterial counts than either treatment alone. The
synergy values of combined ethanol/UV, H2O2/UV BMS-777607 inhibitor and NaClO/UV treatment for B. cereus were 0.14-1.59., 0.05-0.88, and 0.09-0.81 log(10) CFU/g, respectively. These findings suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combined sanitizer/UV treatment in eliminating food-borne pathogens on oyster mushroom.”
“As a result of the increased demand for minimally invasive surgery, single-port laparoscopic surgery performed via a single incision was introduced and has been performed in various fields. Herein, we report our initial experience with single-port laparoscopic appendectomy (SP-LA) using Gelport access for the treatment of acute appendicitis in 2 pregnant women. SP-LA using Gelport access was performed successfully in these pregnant women without prolongation of operation time, and there was no need for ancillary trocar insertions or conversion to conventional laparoscopy. One woman spontaneously delivered at 39
see more weeks’ gestation approximately 20 weeks after the surgery and the other has maintained a healthy pregnancy. SP-LA can be considered a minimally invasive alternative to conventional laparoscopic appendectomy in pregnant women (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/SLE/A55).”
“Vivid recollection of a particular past memory is a rare ictal phenomenon in temporal lobe epilepsy. When the memory is traumatic, the presentation may mimic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We report a woman with temporal lobe epilepsy who was misdiagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder for two years before she had a suspected generalised seizure; video-EEG monitoring confirmed that her episodes were epileptic. Adequate treatment with an antiepileptic medication resulted in total resolution of the episodes.”
“A rare case of intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from renal cell carcinoma mimicking intramedullary hemangioblastoma was described.
Therefore, a sensory or motor hand area within the PPM would be redundant with the somatotopically organized digit function in the primary sensorimotor
LB-100 cortex. In this study the authors aimed to clarify the function subserved by the PPM and further evaluate hand area function in the primary sensorimotor cortex.\n\nMethods. To further elucidate the function subserved by the PPM, patients underwent cortical stimulation in the region of the PPM as well as fMR imaging-demonstrated activation of the hand area. Two separate analytical methods were used to correlate hand area functional imaging with whole-hand sensory and motor responses induced by cortical stimulation.\n\nResults. A relationship of the anatomical PPM with cortical stimulation responses as well as hand fMR imaging activation was observed.\n\nConclusions. A strong relationship
was identified between the PPM, whole-hand sensory and motor stimulation responses, and fMR imaging hand activation. Whole-hand motor and whole-hand sensory cortical regions were identified in the primary sensorimotor cortex. It was localized HDAC phosphorylation to the PPM and exists in addition to the somatotopically organized finger and thumb sensory and motor areas.”
“The oncology care setting represents an important opportunity to identify and refer women at increased risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. However, little is known about the effectiveness of provider approaches to inform patients of hereditary Selleck HIF inhibitor cancer risk or patient uptake of genetic counseling (GC). This qualitative study examined the impact of a surgeon referral letter on recently diagnosed breast cancer
patients’ uptake of BRCA GC.\n\nQualitative open-ended, in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 high-risk breast cancer patients sent a referral letter for BRCA GC by their surgeon. Data were analyzed by a grounded theory approach.\n\nMost women similar to 80%) recalled receiving the letter, and 62% of all (n = 16) women pursued GC. Recall of the letter did not seem to be associated with uptake of GC (P = .49, Fisher’s exact test). The results highlight key areas for improvement that may help increase the impact of the letter. Half of the women in this sample believed that the letter was sent to all breast cancer patients, rather than those with specific risk factors. Few women mentioned any implications for the information obtained during GC or testing regarding their current breast cancer diagnosis or treatment. Of the women who did not attend, many perceived that dealing with the GC and testing process in the midst of a cancer diagnosis and treatment was overwhelming. Among the women who had chosen not to attend GC, most stated they would reconsider after completing their treatment.\n\nPatient recall of a surgeon referral letter does not seem to increase the number of high-risk women who attend GC after a breast cancer diagnosis.
“A series of well-defined theta-shaped copolymers composed of polystyrene (PS) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) with controlled molecular weight and narrow
molecular weight distribution have been successfully synthesized without any purification procedure by the combination of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), ring-opening polymerization (ROP), and the “click” chemistry. The synthetic process involves two steps: (1) synthesis of AB(2) miktoarm star copolymers, which contain one PCL chain terminated with two acetylene groups and two PS chains with two azido groups at their one AZD6244 cost end, (alpha, alpha’-diacetylene-PCL) (omega-azido-PS)(2), by ROP, ATRP, and the terminal group transformation; (2) intramolecular find more cyclization of AB(2) miktoarm star copolymers to produce well-defined pure theta-shaped copolymers using “click” chemistry under high dilution. The (1)H NMR, FTIR, and gel permeation chromatography techniques were applied to characterize the chemical structures of the resultant intermediates and the target polymers. Their thermal behavior was investigated by DSC. The mobility decrease of PCL chain across PS ring in the theta-shaped copolymers restricts the crystallization ability of PCL segment. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 47: 2620-2630, 2009″
“Pigs are very
often colonized by Staphylococcus aureus and transmission of such pig-associated S. aureus to humans can cause serious medical, hygiene, and economic problems. The transmission route of zoonotic pathogens colonizing farm animals to humans is not well established and bioaerosols could play an important role. The aim of this study was to assess the potential occupational risk of working with S. aureus-colonized pigs in Switzerland. We estimated the airborne contamination by S. aureus in 37 pig farms (20 nursery
and 17 fattening units; 25 in summer, 12 in winter). Quantification of total airborne bacterial DNA, airborne Staphylococcus sp. DNA, fungi, and airborne endotoxins was also performed. In this experiment, the presence of cultivable airborne methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 in a pig farm in Switzerland was reported for the first time. Airborne methicillin-sensitive S. aureus CCI-779 ic50 (MSSA) was found in similar to 30% of farms. The average airborne concentration of DNA copy number of total bacteria and Staphylococcus sp. measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction was very high, respectively reaching values of 75 ( 28) 10(7) and 35 ( 9.8) 10(5) copy numbers m(3) in summer and 96 ( 19) 10(8) and 40 ( 12) 10(6) copy numbers m(3) in winter. Total mean airborne concentrations of endotoxins (1298 units of endotoxin m(3)) and fungi (5707 colony-forming units m(3)) exceeded the Swiss recommended values and were higher in winter than in summer.