Here, we propose a new application of the flicker change detectio

Here, we propose a new application of the flicker change detection task that could measure

object-in-scene memory days after single-trial exposures. In three experiments, participants searched for a changing object – or “”target”" – embedded within a scene as their eye movements were tracked. For new targets-in-scenes, the change is difficult to detect and requires extensive search. Once the target is found, however, the change becomes obvious. We reasoned that the decreased times required to find a target in a repeated scene would indicate memory for the target. In humans, targets were found faster when the targets-and-scenes were explicitly remembered than when they were forgotten, or had never been seen before. This led to faster repeated-trial compared to novel-trial search times. Based solely on repeated-trial this website search times, we were able to select distributions comprised of predominantly remembered or predominantly forgotten trials. Macaques exhibited the same repetition effects as humans, suggesting that remembered trials could be dissociated from novel or forgotten trials using the same procedures we established in humans. Finally, an anterograde amnesic patient with damage that included the medial temporal lobe (MTL) showed no search time differences, suggesting that memory revealed through search times Danusertib supplier on this task requires MTL

integrity. Together, these findings indicate that the time required to locate a changing object reveals object-in-scene memory over long retention intervals in humans and macaques.”
“OBJECTIVES: To assess the distribution LY2090314 cell line of dementia subtypes in Brazil using a population-based clinicopathological study.

METHOD: Brains from deceased individuals aged >= 50 years

old were collected after the next of kin signed an informed consent form and provided information through standardized questionnaires. Post-mortem clinical diagnoses were established in consensus meetings, and only cases with moderate or severe dementia or without cognitive impairment were included in the analysis. Immunohistochemical neuropathological examinations were performed following the universally accepted guidelines. A diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease was made when there were at least both a moderate density of neuritic plaques (Consortium to Establish a Register for Alzheimer’s disease B or C) and Braak stage III for neurofibrillary tangle distribution. For the diagnosis of vascular dementia, at least three zones or strategic areas had to be affected by infarcts, lacunae, or microinfarcts.

RESULTS: From 1,291 subjects, 113 cases were classified as having moderate or severe dementia, and 972 cases were free of cognitive impairment. The neuropathological diagnoses of the dementia sub-group were Alzheimer’s disease (35.4%), vascular dementia (21.2%), Alzheimer’s disease plus vascular dementia (13.3%), and other causes of dementia (30.1%).

After six weeks of growth, plants grown

After six weeks of growth, plants grown in

solution lacking Fe were chlorotic and showed morphological changes in roots typical of Fe deficiency. Subsequently, four treatments were applied for nine days: plants grown in continued absence of Fe (Fe0): plants grown in continued presence of 10 mu M Fe (Fe10); foliar application of ferrous sulphate every two days to chlorotic plants (Fe-leaves); and growth of chlorotic plants in solution with ferrous sulphate (Fe-solution). After six days, the chlorophyll (Chl) content in leaves of Fe-solution plants was similar to that in Fe10 plants. Under the Fe-leaves treatment, a slight regreening of new leaves was observed only by the end of the experiment. After nine days, ferric chelate reductase (FC-R) activity Savolitinib cost was unchanged in Fe10 but increased in Fe0 plants. The FC-R activity of Fe-solution plants was similar to the initial value for chlorotic plants, whereas it was reduced drastically under the Fe-leaves treatment. The Fe concentration in leaves of Fe0 and Fe10 was similar, whereas the Fe-solution and Fe-leaves treatments enhanced leaf Fe concentration. In contrast

to the Fe-solution treatment, foliar application of Fe did not increase the Fe concentration in roots. Under our experimental conditions, FC-R activity in strawberry appeared to be deactivated rapidly by pulses of Fe applied by foliar sprays. Deactivation was slower if Fe was applied directly to roots, which suggested that the plants had greater opportunity to take Fe. (C) 2012 Elsevier

Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The magnetic BKM120 ic50 and electronic transport properties of the lightly doped SrRu1-xFexO3 (x <= 0.15) have been studied. All the samples show a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition and hysteresis effect. With the increase of Fe, the temperature of magnetic phase transition decreases but coercive field increases indicting the existence of antiferromagnetic interaction and magnetic-crystalline anisotropy. In low temperature, all the doping samples exhibit an insulating behavior while metal feature appears only at x <= 0.10 samples. The induced disorder suppresses the itinerant property of Ru 4d electron due to Fe random occupation. As a result, the ferromagnetism is weakened and metal-insulator transition is suppressed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3624764]“
“The organization of muscle is the product of functional adaptation over several length scales spanning from the sarcomere to the muscle bundle. One possible strategy for solving this multiscale coupling problem is to physically constrain the muscle cells in microenvironments that potentiate the organization of their intracellular space. We hypothesized that boundary conditions in the extracellular space potentiate the organization of cytoskeletal scaffolds for directed sarcomeregenesis.

5 mg/day)) Therefore, we analyzed whether Micombi (R) BP (high-d

5 mg/day)). Therefore, we analyzed whether Micombi (R) BP (high-dose telmisartan (80 mg/day)/HCTZ (12.5 mg/day)) could provide

better results with regard to efficacy and safety for patients with uncontrolled hypertension.

Methods: In total, 44 hypertensive patients (22 males, age 71 +/- 14 years) who showed uncontrolled BP despite the use of high-dose ARBs or Preminent (R) were enrolled in this study. We used a changeover design in which the 17DMAG manufacturer patients were switched from high-dose ARBs or Preminent (R) to Micombi (R) BP. We analyzed BP, heart rate (HR), and biochemical parameters before and after treatment for 3 months.

Results: Systolic BP and diastolic BP significantly decreased (125 +/- 15/69 +/- 11 mmHg) and 85% of the

patients achieved their target BP at 3 months after changeover. Patients who switched from ARBs and those who switched from Preminent (R) showed similar BP-lowering effects. In addition, the reductions in BP after 3 months in patients with or without chronic kidney disease and in those with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS) were also similar. There were no significant changes in HR during the study period. Although blood levels of potassium, hemoglobin A1c and uric acid (UA) significantly increased after 3 months for all of the patients, none of the patients showed serious adverse Mizoribine ic50 effects.

Conclusion: High-dose telmisartan/HCTZ therapy was associated with a significant reduction in BP and helped patients achieve their target BP.”
“Pregnancy and lactation are periods of significant influence on bone metabolism that has not been

investigated in equines. To examine the influence of late pregnancy and lactation on bone metabolism in mares, the changes in the blood serum/plasma total calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphates (Pi), pyridinoline (Pyd) and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) concentration and the bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) activity were investigated. The samples were taken from 11 mares on 60 +/- 10 and 20 +/- 10 days before foaling, and 20 +/- 10 and 60 +/- 10 days after foaling. The concentration/activity of Ca, Pi, Pyd and CT99021 solubility dmso BAP increased significantly in early lactation, but the Pyd than decreased in the 4th period. A significant correlation was observed between the E2 and bone metabolism parameters. The results indicate low maintenance of normocalcaemia with reduced bone synthesis in late pregnancy and prove the role of estradiol in bone metabolism in mares during pregnancy and lactation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are known to play a significant role in reendothelialization and vascular repair. Recently, a mineralocorticoid receptor was demonstrated to be expressed by EPCs. The study aimed to evaluate a potential influence of eplerenone treatment on the total number of EPCs in patients with chronic heart failure.

As for copper, MtOGG1 showed significant up-regulation (up to 1 2

As for copper, MtOGG1 showed significant up-regulation (up to 1.2- and 1.7-fold) only in roots while the MtFPG mRNA significantly increased (up to 1.3- and 2.8-fold, respectively) in roots and aerial parts. In response to PEG, the MtOGG1 expression was significantly enhanced

in aerial parts (up to 1.3-fold) while the MtFPG showed significant (1.2-fold) up-regulation in roots. The MAPK inhibitor expression profiles of MtOGG1 and MtFPG genes were also evaluated during seed imbibition, a physiological process which is characterized by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) accumulation and requires active DNA repair. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“First-principles density functional calculations were performed for magnetic properties of wurtzite ZnO((1-x))X(x) (X = S, Se, and Te) alloys in the presence of Zn cation vacancies and a low concentration of group-VI dopants in the framework of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the LSDA+U method. The positions of the Zn-3d states are misplaced in the LSDA approach and these positions are approximately corrected in the LSDA+U method. We demonstrate that the magnetic state of ZnO((1-x))X(x) with a native point defect is mainly localized at the Zn cation vacancy. The substitution of oxygen atoms around the vacancy by chalcogens

PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 clinical trial X does not destroy the local spin triplet state (S(T) = 1) at the zinc vacancy but diminishes its stability. The X impurities prefer to be close to the Zn vacancy in the apex position and the destabilization of the magnetic state increases in the series from X = S to X = Te. In order to explain the calculated magnetic properties a group theory analysis has been exploited. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3562168]“
“PURPOSE: To report the 4-year outcomes after Intacs intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation to correct low myopia in patients with abnormal topography.


Instituto de Microcirugia Ocular, Barcelona, Spain.

METHODS: This retrospective consecutive interventional case series included eyes with myopia lower than 4.50 diopters (D) and abnormal topography that excluded excimer laser surgery. Evaluation was performed preoperatively and at yearly intervals up to 4 years postoperatively. The 4-year outcomes measures were uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, predictability and stability of refractive correction, the efficacy and safety indices, and complications.

RESULTS: After ICRS implantation, 82.05% of 39 eyes (21 patients) were within +/- 1.00 diopter (D) of emmetropia and 46.15% were within +/- 0.50 D. Refractive correction improved during the first 6 months and remained stable up to 4 years. The UDVA was 20/40 or better in all eyes and 20/20 or better in 38.46% of eyes. Seven eyes (17.95%) lost 1 line of CDVA, and no eye lost 2 or more lines. No intraoperative complications occurred. The ICRS were exchanged for thicker ICRS in 7 eyes (17.

Regarding their

Regarding their Epigenetic phosphorylation partner, erectile dysfunction was present in 23.8%, premature ejaculation in 21.2% and 43.5% abused alcohol. The four most frequently found symptoms of those composing the MRS were muscle and joint problems (80%), depressive mood (73.5%), physical and mental exhaustion (71.3%) and irritability (68%). Mean total MRS score was 18 +/- A 10.6 (median 17) and for subscales: 7.2 +/- A 4.5 (somatic); 6.9 +/- A 4.8 (psychological) and 3.9 +/- A 3.4 (urogenital). Women presented severe

scores in 53, 36.1, 48.3 and 49.8% for total MRS and somatic, psychological and urogenital subscales, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis determined that female higher parity and partner premature ejaculation increased the risk for presenting severe total MRS scores (impaired female quality of life), whereas women who had a positive perception

of their health status were at decreased risk.

In this middle-aged series psychological menopausal symptoms were the most frequent in which severity was associated to parity and partner sexual dysfunction.”
“In this study, the topography evolution of fused silica surfaces during low-energy ion beam erosion Cell Cycle inhibitor has been investigated depending on the ion incidence angle and with focus on the importance of the initial surface topography. Ripple prepattern, also prepared by ion beam erosion, that exhibits an anisotropic surface with adjustable surface amplitudes and gradients was utilized. Based on experimental results that confirm smoothing and patterning behavior, ON-01910 in vivo gradient-dependent sputtering is identified being the dominant topography evolution mechanism. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3549170]“
“To investigate the efficacy of the insertion of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) tied up with nylon threads for the treatment of cervical stenosis after conization.

Dilatation of the cervical canal and insertion of IUCD tied up with nylon threads was performed in four patients with symptomatic cervical stenosis after conization. After three courses of

regular menstruation, the IUCD with nylon threads was removed.

Total relief of symptoms was achieved in all four patients without any management-related complications. There was no evidence of recurrent cervical stenosis at follow-up in any of the patients.

Detention of nylon threads tied up to IUCD provides an easy and reliable conservative management technique for post-conization cervical stenosis.”
“Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and one of the major causes of death among women. Breast cancer is also one of the most investigated diseases but whose biological features are still not well understood, several effective treating strategies having been explored in dealing with different types of advanced breast cancer, such as endocrine therapy and molecular targeted therapy.

These high-throughput methods

These high-throughput methods

Cilengitide mw applied to neonatal and non-invasive prenatal screening of genetic diseases, including inborn errors of metabolism, are raising further technical, political and ethical issues.”
“BACKGROUND: A membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) has previously been used to provide both anaerobic and aerobic conditions for mineralisation of perchloroethylene (PCE). However, very little is known about the stability of this reactor under hydraulic and PCE shock loads. An MABR was therefore subjected to sudden hydraulic and PCE shock loads in order to investigate its stability under such conditions.

RESULTS: After each shock, the reactor responded with an increase of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile fatty acids (VFA)s, a breakthrough of PCE and its biodegradation intermediates in the effluent, and a decrease in methane production. Although some PCE biodegradation intermediates were found in the effluent during each shock loading,the MABR performance recovered without the accumulation of any particular PCE biodegradation intermediates during PCE shock loads. During the hydraulic shock loads, the MABR was unstable at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6 h with PCE and its biodegradation intermediates detected in the effluent. However, these intermediates were degraded when the HRT was reset to CFTR inhibitor 48 h.

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that MABRs can withstand fluctuations in influent strength and flows which occur in

wastewater treatment works. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“In Italy, the nationwide newborn screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism (CH)

represents an integrated approach to the disease including screening tests, diagnosis, treatment, follow up and nation-wide surveillance of the disease. The latter is performed by the Italian National Registry of Infants with Congenital Hypothyroidism (INRICH). The INRICH is a population-based Registry, this implies that results obtained in the analyses conducted on the data collected in the INRICH are highly representative, can be easily used to improve the health of CH children, and provide information critical to understanding the etiology of the disease. Over the years, the INRICH has contributed: i) to improve procedures for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of affected babies, by identifying critical points in screening program procedures; ii) to estimate the incidence of CH and the prevalence of the different forms of the disease (thyroid dysgenesis, normally located and shaped thyroid) in our country; iii) to provide a unique opportunity for research into this condition given the large amount and the high quality of information collected in this registry.”
“BACKGROUND: Biphasic systems with immiscible solvents have been studied for in situ product removal, and have shown improvements in bioreactor performance, however, problems associated with solvent biocompatibility, bioavailability and operation have been identified.

The combined effect of the Y-24W1 artificial defects and the addi

The combined effect of the Y-24W1 artificial defects and the addition of silver produce enhanced trapped fields in these samples. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3225557]“
“”"Cord accident” (compromised umbilical blood flow) as a cause of stillbirth is underreported, mainly due to a lack of diagnostic criteria. Based on fetal vascular pathology in the placenta, we have previously established histologic criteria for the diagnosis of cord accident. In the current study, we set out to test the sensitivity and specificity of these criteria by reviewing an independent set of stillbirth cases. Placental slides from 26 cases (in which cord accident LY3023414 research buy was deemed

SB202190 order the cause of death) and 62 controls (in which the cause of death was anything other than cord accident) were reviewed. The following histologic changes were noted: (1) dilated fetal vessels, (2) thrombosis in fetal vessels, and (3) avascular or near-avascular chorionic villi. “”Minimal” criteria were defined as the presence of dilated and thrombosed fetal vessels, while the additional presence of focal or regional avascular or near-avascular villi satisfied the complete criteria. Of the 62 stillbirth controls with cause of death other than cord accident, 13 (21%) met the minimal criteria (specificity 79%) and only 4 (6%) met the complete criteria for cord accident (specificity

94%). In contrast, of the 26 cases with a cause of death related to cord accident, 16 met the minimal criteria (sensitivity 62%) and 12 met the complete criteria (sensitivity 46%). These histologic criteria identify cases of cord accident as a cause of stillbirth with very high specificity. This study confirms the utility of these criteria for diagnosis of cord accident and further stresses placental examination in evaluation of stillbirths.”

B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) correlates with cardiac filling pressures and outcomes in patients with heart failure. In heart transplant recipients, we hypothesize that a within-individual change in BNP over BAY 63-2521 manufacturer time would be more helpful than absolute BNP in detecting International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) grade 2R or greater rejection.

Methods: N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) levels were measured in 146 consecutive transplant recipients undergoing routine endomyocardial biopsies. In the cross-sectional analysis, multiple observations per individual were accounted for using generalized estimation equations.

Results: A cross-sectional analysis demonstrated a weak association between NT-proBNP levels and rejection, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.01 for every 100-pg/mL increase in NT-proBNP (p = 0.02). However, with a doubling of an individual’s NT-proBNP level, the OR for significant rejection was 2.

For those candidates for prostate sparing surgery, it seems reaso

For those candidates for prostate sparing surgery, it seems reasonable to include a routine prostate biopsy in

the standard preoperative work-up as relevant PSA values to exclude cancer are lacking. Reports of prostatic urethral involvement at the time of radical cystectomy are mostly retrospective. Thus, it is likely that the true incidence of involvement with urothelial carcinoma is underreported. It has been suggested that multifocal bladder tumors, CIS in the bladder and bladder tumor location in the bladder neck are independent risk factors for prostatic urothelial carcinoma. Prostatic stromal involvement, which reflects the depth of invasion, Napabucasin price is the most important prognostic factor. Poorly differentiated prostate adenocarcinoma and urothelial carcinoma often share overlapping morphologic features and it can be sometimes difficult to differentiate between these two entities. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphism of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 C8092A affected the clinical outcomes and toxicity in advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer patients

receiving first line platinum based chemotherapy.

Material/Methods: A total of 300 chemotherapy treated patients were examined for C8092A genotypes in peripheral blood samples.

Results: Overall response rate find more was 33.6% and median overall survival was 13.5 months. There was no significant correlation between C8092A single nucleotide polymorphism learn more and overall survival, tumor response or toxicity for platinum-based chemotherapy.

Conclusions: Excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) showed controversial results in different studies that have been carried out until now. In our Chinese population

there is no correlation between ERCC1 C8092A SNP and efficacy or toxicity. Ethnicity could be a possible explanation for these controversial results.”
“The detailed investigation of the whole plant of Ligularia dictyoneura was performed during a search for unique chemical skeletons. One novel noreremophilane-type sesquiterpene, (4S, 5R, 8R, 10S)-1-nor-10-hydroxy-8-methoxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8-olide (1) and one new highly oxygenated eremophilane, 1 beta-angeloyloxy-6 alpha, 10 beta-dihydroxyeremophil-7(11), 8-dien-12, 8-olide (2), were obtained. Their structures, including the absolute configuration, were elucidated by spectroscopic data and CD analysis. (C) 2013 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This review examines current approaches available for articular cartilage repair, not only in terms of their regeneration potential, but also as a function of immunologic response.

However, its measurement is not standardised We review the diffe

However, its measurement is not standardised. We review the different methods used to

measure AAA maximum diameter, with ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT).

Methods: A review of maximum diameter measurement methods with US and CT was performed, focussing on screening, surveillance before repair and decision for intervention. Diameter measurement methodology was described according to four parameters: plane of acquisition, axis of measurement, position of callipers and selected diameter. A quality score to evaluate methodology descriptions was defined (plane, axis, callipers LDC000067 in vivo placement and selected diameter), ranging from 0 (worst) to 4 (best).

Results: Review showed a wide range of definitions and practices. The mean value of the quality score was 2.52 in screening studies, 1.66 in guidelines for screening, 2.81 in follow-up studies and 1.63 in studies describing decision Dinaciclib cost for intervention.

Conclusion: To improve the efficiency of AAA management (in screening programmes, follow-up and decision for intervention), and enable comparison between future studies, a standardised methodology for AAA maximum diameter measurement is necessary. Until such a consensus is reached, publications should at least clearly report the method of measurement. (C) 2012 European Society for Vascular

Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: In cometabolic transformation of 4-chlorophenol (4-cp) in the presence of phenol and sodium glutamate (SG), a new biphasic growth pattern has been reported. This study investigates AZD2014 clinical trial the physiological changes of Pseudomonas putida P8 during the biphasic growth by means of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and

MALDI-TOF analyses.

RESULTS: A total of 49 protein spots were selected and identified in the 2-DE gels from P. putida P8 grown on a mixed substrate containing 200 mg L(-1) of phenol, 200 mg L(-1) of 4-cp and 1000 mg L(-1) SG. Among them, 16 protein spots were found differentially expressed in the two exponential growth phases during the biphasic growth, including six catabolic enzymes (DmpC, DmpD, DmpE, DmpF, DmpG and AspA) for substrate utilization. The expression of other proteins involved in detoxification and stress responses, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and environmental information processing as well as a multifunctional xenobiotic reductase (XenA) was quantitatively analyzed and discussed.

CONCLUSION: The expression levels of the identified catabolic enzymes during growth in the two growth phases correlated well with the substrate utilization patterns observed in previous kinetics studies. Furthermore, the results show that cells growing on a mixture of aromatic substrates undergo significant physiological changes.

These differentiate and grow during the first 9 weeks of age in t

These differentiate and grow during the first 9 weeks of age in the mouse. Identification of the major signaling pathways active during and after the growth and differentiation period will allow functional analysis using mouse genetics and identify targets for therapy for individual components

of the disc.

Methods. Antibodies specific for individual cell signaling pathways were used on cryostat sections of IVD at different postnatal ages to identify which components of the IVD were responding to major classes of intercellular signal, including sonic hedgehog, Wnt, TGF beta, FGF, and P005091 cost BMPs.

Results. We present a spatial/temporal map of these signaling pathways during growth, differentiation, and aging of the disc.


During growth and differentiation of the disc, its different components respond at different times to different intercellular signaling ligands. Most of these are dramatically downregulated at the end of disc growth.”
“Extracellular fibrous amyloid deposits or intracellular inclusion bodies containing abnormal protein aggregates are pathological hallmarks of several neurodegenerative disorders and it has been hotly debated whether these aberrant protein structures merely occur as a consequence of disease or actually participate in a pathogenic cascade which culminates in neural dysfunction and death. Here, we review the role of aberrant protein structure in the two most common neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease and in GSI-IX nmr two rare familial dementias, familial British dementia and familial Danish dementia. We also discuss possible mechanisms by which aberrant protein structures may mediate disease and the therapeutic opportunities this knowledge offers.”
“Two new phenolic glycosides were isolated from the ethanol extract of the roots of Inula cappa DC. Their structures were defined as 4-[(6-O-(E)-caffeoyl)--D-glucopyranosyl]vanillic acid (1) and 3-O-[-D-apiofurarnosyl-(1-6)--D-glucopyranoxy]-6-hydroxy-p-cymene (2) on the basis of spectral analysis.”
“Study Design. We evaluated the electrophysiological changes to the cauda equina after low-dose

external irradiation in a postlaminotomy fibrosis model in rats.

Objective. To clarify the immediate and long-term electrophysiological responses SN-38 ic50 of antifibrotic radiation therapy in a fibrosis model.

Summary of Background Data. Low-dose perioperative radiation therapy inhibits scar formation. However, its efficacy for preventing fibrosis-induced compressive neuropathy and its potential adverse effect on underlying neural structures have not been studied.

Methods. Twenty-four rats were placed in 3 groups of 8: group I, sham operation (laminar exposure alone) with a single fraction of 700 cGy external irradiation given using a 9-MeV electron beam 24 hours postsurgery; group II, left L5 hemilaminectomy (laminotomy) alone; and group III, left L5 hemilaminectomy with the same radiation protocol as group 1.