Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA was detected in serum from 10 patients

Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA was detected in serum from 10 patients with RT-PCR. Legionella pneumophila urinary antigen was detected in 5 patients. Serological IgM antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in 7 patients and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in 2 patients were observed. Etiology was not determined in 32.5% of patients. The most frequently identified pathogens causing CAP were S. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, and C. pneumoniae in descending order in our hospital.\n\nConclusion: Although determination of causative agents in all CAP patients has not been accomplished, knowledge of the spectrum and frequency of local causative

agents are valuable for targeted therapy.”
“Objective: To highlight the possible association of intracranial aneurysm with autosomal Rapamycin nmr recessive

polycystic kidney disease.\n\nDesign, Setting, and Patient: To our knowledge, this association has been reported only twice Caspase inhibitor in the medical literature. We herein report the case of a 21-year-old man with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, at our institution.\n\nResults: In the presence of only 3 cases in the medical literature, one might conclude they are a simple coincidence. However, should this association exist, such as with the dominant form, then the neurologic prognosis and even the life of young patients may be at stake.\n\nConclusions: Given the devastating consequences of intracranial bleeding in young patients, early neurologic screening may be warranted. JAMA Neurol. 2013;70(1):114-116. Published online October 1, 2012. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.584″
“Objective.

Until now studies concerning the involvement of hepatic nonparenchymal cells (NPCs), particularly Kupffer cells/macrophages (KCs/MPs), in the pathogenesis of human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis see more (NASH) have been limited to adult patients; there are no similar reports referring to children. This study aimed to explore, based on ultrastructural analysis, the role of KCs/MPs in the morphogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in children. Material and methods. Ultrastructural investigations of KCs were conducted on liver bioptates obtained from 10 children, aged 2-14 years, with clinicopathologically diagnosed NASH. Bioptatic material was fixed in solution of paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer, routinely processed for transmission-electron microscopic analysis and examined using an Opton EM microscope. Results. The current ultrastructural study revealed within the hepatic sinusoids the presence of numerous enlarged KCs with increased phagocytic activity, which reduced or blocked vascular lumen. Interestingly, the activated KCs not only contained primary and secondary lysosomes, altered mitochondria, and well-developed Golgi apparatus, but also absorbed fragments of erythrocytes.

The study sample consisted of 217 inpatients with schizophrenia

The study sample consisted of 217 inpatients with schizophrenia. Age, duration of illness, duration of hospitalization, years of education, body mass index, neurocognitive function, drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms, involuntary movements, psychiatric symptoms, and dose equivalents of antipsychotics and anticholinergic agents were used as index factors. Pearson

linear correlation and regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between QOL and the above-mentioned factors. Negative symptoms, psychological discomfort, and resistance as rated on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were correlated with all subscale scores of the Japanese version of the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (JSQLS). Stepwise regression showed that negative CA4P cell line symptoms, psychological discomfort, and resistance predicted the dysfunction of psycho-social activity score and the dysfunction of motivation and energy score on the JSQLS. This study shows that active treatment for negative symptoms, psychological discomfort, and resistance should be recommended to improve QOL among inpatients with schizophrenia.

(C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: In incident hemodialysis (HD) patients, the relationship between early systolic blood pressure (SBP) dynamics and mortality is unknown. Methods: Baseline SBP levels were stratified into 5 categories ranging from <120 and >= 180 mm Hg. Early pre-HD SBP change was defined as the Selleck Kinase Inhibitor Library slope of pre-HD SBP from week 1 to 12 and categorized in quartiles (Q1, lowest slope). SBP slopes were computed for each patient by simple linear regression. Results: In 3,446 incident HD patients (42% females, 44% black, age 62 +/- 15 years), the median pre-HD SBP slope was -1.7 (Q1) to +2.3

(Q4) mm Hg/week. In an adjusted multivariate Cox regression analysis, patients with declining SBP (slope Q1) had higher mortality compared to patients with increasing pre-HD SBP (slope Q4) at 12 months (hazard ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.35-3.01). In addition, patients with baseline pre-HD SBP <120 mm Hg PP2 datasheet showed higher mortality compared to the reference group (SBP >= 180 mm Hg) at 12 months (hazard ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.45). Conclusion: Baseline pre-HD SBP and early SBP dynamics are associated with mortality in the first year of dialysis. Patients who had low (pre-HD SBP <120 mm Hg) or declining SBP had the highest mortality rates. Particular attention is warranted in incident HD patients with low or declining SBP. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Introduction: The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are rare diseases for which data regarding the natural history, response to therapies and factors affecting mortality are needed. We performed this study to examine the effects of treatment and clinical features on survival in polymyositis and dermatomyositis patients.

irritans at 8-day post immunization (dpi), which resulted in 46%

irritans at 8-day post immunization (dpi), which resulted in 46% relative percent survival (RPS). In Volasertib trial II, single immunization with pcDNA3.1-optiAg boosted with recombinant iAg protein, resulted in 40% RPS. The data from this study reveal that codon change in iAg not only accomplished the expression of iAg protein in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell systems,

but also optiAg was proved as immunogenic due to the protection it confers to the immunized fish against C. irritans infection. Hence, it is concluded that iAg can be a potent DNA vaccine in fish against infection of the ciliated protozoan, C. irritans. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators that have been demonstrated to play an important role in human diseases. Elucidating the associations between miRNAs and diseases at the systematic level will deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of diseases. However, miRNA-disease

associations identified by previous computational methods are far from completeness and more effort is needed.\n\nResults: We developed a computational 4SC-202 framework to identify miRNA-disease associations by performing random walk analysis, and focused on the functional link between miRNA targets and disease genes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Furthermore, a bipartite miRNA-disease network was constructed, from which several miRNA-disease co-regulated modules were identified by hierarchical clustering analysis. Our approach achieved satisfactory performance in identifying known cancer-related miRNAs for nine human cancers with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) ranging from 71.3% to 91.3%. By systematically analyzing the global properties of the miRNA-disease network, we found that only a small number of miRNAs regulated genes involved Hedgehog inhibitor in various diseases, genes associated with neurological diseases

were preferentially regulated by miRNAs and some immunological diseases were associated with several specific miRNAs. We also observed that most diseases in the same co-regulated module tended to belong to the same disease category, indicating that these diseases might share similar miRNA regulatory mechanisms.\n\nConclusions: In this study, we present a computational framework to identify miRNA-disease associations, and further construct a bipartite miRNA-disease network for systematically analyzing the global properties of miRNA regulation of disease genes. Our findings provide a broad perspective on the relationships between miRNAs and diseases and could potentially aid future research efforts concerning miRNA involvement in disease pathogenesis.”
“The underlying pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is the formation of occlusive thrombi. While many well-defined animal models recapitulate the process of intravascular thrombosis, there is a need for validated ex vivo models of occlusive thrombus formation.

92%) and D-limonene (15 78%), beta-pinene (4 91%) and transpinoca

92%) and D-limonene (15.78%), beta-pinene (4.91%) and transpinocarveol (4.76%), while

the oil extracted by SPME showed alpha-pinene (41.59%), D-limonene GW4869 (17.8%), beta-caryophllene (11.02%) and beta-pinene (7.54%) as the principal components. SPME extracts indicated that alpha-pinene and beta-caryophllene were in greater concentration in the head space vapours than in the oil. The antioxidant activity of the oils from P. armandii was evaluated using the DPPH. This is the first report describing the essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of this species.”
“Extraesophageal reflux disease, commonly called laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD), continues to be an entity with more questions than answers. Although the role of LPRD has been implicated in various pediatric diseases, it has been inadequately studied in others. LPRD is believed to contribute to failure to thrive, laryngomalacia, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, chronic cough, hoarseness, esophagitis, and aspiration among other pathologies. Thus, LPRD should be considered as a chronic disease with a variety of presentations. High clinical

suspicion along with consultation with 4SC-202 molecular weight an otolaryngologist, who can evaluate for laryngeal findings, is necessary to accurately diagnose LPRD.”
“Background Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is an immune-mediated disorder that is characterized by slowly progressive and asymmetrical weakness, but its pathophysiological mechanism is uncertain. The hypothesis that MMN is an immunological disease has been supported by the proven therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin and

the detection of antiganglioside antibodies in MMN patients. The coexistence of MMN with other immune diseases has been rarely reported.\n\nCase Report A 37-year-old woman visited our hospital complaining BX-795 price of weakness in both hands. The clinical manifestations coincided well with MMN: predominantly distal upper-limb weakness, asymmetric involvement, a progressive course, absence of sensory symptoms, absence of pyramidal signs, and sparing of the cranial muscles. The electrophysiological findings also supported a diagnosis of MMN, with motor nerve conduction block in the median, ulnar, and radial nerves, without sensory nerve involvement. The patient was simultaneously diagnosed as having Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, which is a well-known immune-mediated disease.\n\nConclusions The concurrence of MMN and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in our patient is significant for understanding the immunological characteristics of the two diseases. J Clin Neurol 2011;7:168-172″
“Group 2 allergens (Der p2) have been reported to be a major cause of the human immune response to dust mite allergens. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time the effective differentiation between haplotype mutation and normal genes in the MD-2 gene promoter using a nanostructured biosensor.

Urine culture followed by a series of biochemical reactions is cu

Urine culture followed by a series of biochemical reactions is currently the standard method for detecting and distinguishing microorganisms associated with UTIs. The whole procedure commonly takes more than 24 h. Here we developed a new system combining 16S rRNA gene broad-range PCR with pyrosequencing technology that allows for bacteria detection and identification in urine in 5 h. To evaluate this system for rapid diagnosis

of bacteriuria, 768 urine specimens were collected from patients with suspected UTIs and were tested side-by-side using standard urine culture-based identification method and the pyrosequencing method. The results from pyrosequencing correlated well with those from traditional culture-based identification INCB024360 solubility dmso method. The overall

agreement between these two methods reached 98.0% (753/768). In addition, we tested the sensitivity of pyrosequencing method and determined that urine bacterial numbers as low as 10(4) cfu/ml could be accurately detected and identified. In conclusion, compared with traditional biochemical method, the PCR-pyrosequencing system significantly improved the detection and identification of bacteriuria with shorter time, higher accuracy, and higher throughput, thus allowing earlier pathogen-adapted antibiotic therapy for patients. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. Savolitinib clinical trial All rights reserved.”
“Conserved interactions among proteins or other molecules can provide strong evidence for coevolution across their evolutionary history. Diverse phylogenetic

methods have been applied to identify potential coevolutionary relationships. In most cases, these methods minimally require BKM120 comparisons of orthologous sequences and appropriate controls to separate effects of selection from the overall evolutionary relationships. In vertebrates, androgen receptor (AR) and cytochrome p450 aromatase (CYP19) share an affinity for androgenic steroids, which serve as receptor ligands and enzyme substrates. In a recent study, Tiwary and Li (Tiwary BK, Li W-H. 2009. Parallel evolution between aromatase and androgen receptor in the animal kingdom. Mol Biol Evol. 26:123-129) reported that AR and CYP19 displayed a signature of ancient and conserved interactions throughout all the Eumetazoa (i.e., cnidarians, protostomes, and deuterostomes). Because these findings conflicted with a number of previous studies, we reanalyzed the data set used by Tiwary and Li. First, our analyses demonstrate that the invertebrate genes used in the previous analysis are not orthologous sequences but instead represent a diverse set of nuclear receptors and CYP enzymes with no confirmed or hypothesized relationships with androgens.

This research was supported by the National Human Genome Rese

\n\nThis research was supported by the National Human Genome Research Institute (R01 HG004500 and P50 Pexidartinib datasheet HG003390). None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to declare.”
“Despite decades of study, electron

flow and energy conservation in methanogenic Archaea are still not thoroughly understood. For methanogens without cytochromes, flavin-based electron bifurcation has been proposed as an essential energy-conserving mechanism that couples exergonic and endergonic reactions of methanogenesis. However, an alternative hypothesis posits that the energy-converting hydrogenase Eha provides a chemiosmosis-driven electron input to the endergonic reaction. In vivo evidence for both hypotheses is incomplete. By genetically eliminating all nonessential pathways of H-2 metabolism in the model methanogen Methanococcus

maripaludis and using formate as an additional electron donor, we isolate electron flow for methanogenesis from flux through Eha. We find that Eha does not function stoichiometrically for methanogenesis, implying that electron bifurcation must operate find more in vivo. We show that Eha is nevertheless essential, and a substoichiometric requirement for H-2 suggests that its role is anaplerotic. Indeed, H-2 via Eha stimulates methanogenesis from formate when intermediates are not otherwise replenished. These results fit the model for electron bifurcation, which renders the methanogenic pathway cyclic, and as such requires the replenishment of intermediates. Defining a role for Eha and verifying electron bifurcation provide a complete model of methanogenesis where all necessary electron inputs are accounted for.”
“BackgroundAutophagy is a catabolic process involving

the degradation PXD101 solubility dmso of cells’ own unnecessary, injured, or aged proteins and recycling of degraded products to maintain hemostasis. Recently, studies indicated that autophagy plays a crucial role in cancer development. However, the role of autophagy in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) has not been well documented. This study aims to assess the expression of autophagy-related protein and investigate its effect on TSCC.\n\nMaterials and methodsArchival 50 TSCC samples were enrolled. Immunohistochemistry were performed to examine the expression of Beclin1 and LC3. Statistical analyses were carried out to assess the associations among clinicopathologic parameters. In vitro, cells were treated with rapamycin or 3-MA. Then, qPCR, western blot and immunofluorescence were performed to detect the expression of Beclin1 and LC3. Transmission electron microscopy was utilized to identify autophagsomes. For functional analysis, cell proliferation and cell cycle were evaluated with MTT assay and flow cytometer, respectively. At last, cell migration and invasion potentials were assessed by wound healing assay and transwell assay.

These findings should be confirmed with larger samples, and for o

These findings should be confirmed with larger samples, and for other diseases.”
“Two structurally interesting new norlignans named 2-hydroxy-4-[4-hydroxyphenyl-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)]-3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran

(1) (pouzolignan A), and 1,4-dihydroxy-3[4-hydroxyphenyl-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)]-2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)butane (2) (pouzolignan B), were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the methanol extract of Pouzolzia occidentalis. Compound 3, the methyl ether of 1, most likely an artifact, was also isolated. PF-01367338 The overall structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated largely by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. (C) 2009 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Aphids are, arguably, the single most damaging group of agricultural insect pests throughout the world. Plant tolerance, which is a plant response HIF inhibitor review to an insect pest, is viewed as an excellent management strategy. Developing testable hypotheses

based on genome-wide and more focused methods will help in understanding the molecular underpinnings of plant tolerance to aphid herbivory. As a first step in this process, we undertook transcript profiling with Affymetrix GeneChip Barley Genome arrays using RNA extracted from tissues of tolerant and susceptible genotypes collected at three hours, three days and six days after Diuraphis noxia introduction. Acquired data were compared to identify changes unique to the tolerant barley at each harvest selleck products date. Transcript abundance of 4086 genes was differentially changed over the three harvest dates in tolerant and susceptible barley in response to D. noxia feeding. Across the three harvest dates, the greatest number of genes was differentially expressed in both barleys at three days after aphid

introduction. A total of 909 genes showed significant levels of change in the tolerant barley in response to D. noxia feeding as compared to susceptible plants infested with aphids. Many of these genes could be assigned to specific metabolic categories, including several associated with plant defense and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). interestingly, two peroxidase genes, designated HvPRXA1 and HvPRYA2, were up-regulated to a greater degree in response to D. noxia feeding on tolerant barley plants, indicating that specific peroxidases could be important for the tolerance process. These findings suggest that the ability to elevate and sustain levels of ROS-scavenging enzymes could play an important role in the tolerant response.”
“Objective To determine the relationship between beliefs, motivation, and worries about physical activity and physical activity participation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).\n\nMethods. A cross-sectional study used baseline data from 185 adults with RA enrolled in a randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity.

We designed liposomes

We designed liposomes JQ-EZ-05 ic50 (LPs) with controlled diameter of around 300 nm, and modified them with a specific ligand and a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) (a dual-ligand LP) for targeting CD13-expressing neovasculature in a renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We modified the LPs with an NGR motif peptide on the top of poly(ethylene glycol) and tetra-arginine (R4) on the surface of the liposome membrane as a specific and CPP ligand, respectively. The large size prevented extravasation of

the dual-ligand LP, which allowed it to associate with target vasculature. While a single modification with either the specific or CPP ligand showed no increase in targetability, the dual-ligand enhanced the amount of delivered liposomes after systemic administration to OS-RC-2 xenograft mice. The anti-tumor activity of a dual-ligand LP encapsulating doxorubicin was evaluated and the results were compared with Doxil (R), which is clinically used to target tumor cells. Even though Doxil showed no anti-tumor activity, the dual-ligand LP suppressed tumor growth because the disruption of tumor vessels was efficiently induced. The comparison showed that tumor endothelial cells (TECs) were more sensitive to doxorubicin by 2 orders than RCC tumor cells, and the disruption of tumor vessels was efficiently induced. Collectively, the dual-ligand LP is

promising carrier for the treatment of drug resistant RCC via the disruption of TECs. (C) 2012 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“Heavy ion test results show worst-case test conditions for single-event gate rupture (SEGR) PF-00299804 mw of power MOSFETs. Contrary to common belief, the worst-case ion condition for SEGR is not the ion with the deepest penetration depth in the device or highest LET at the die surface, but the

ion beams with Bragg Peak positioned at or near the interface of the epitaxial layer and the highly doped substrate. The factors that have significant impact on SEGR thresholds are evaluated and discussed. Bafilomycin A1 in vivo The factors that are considered include: ion beam, drain bias, gate bias, ion species, ion range, surface LET and the construction layer of the power DMOSFET. An estimated worst-case ion range table for krypton, xenon and gold is provided for reference.”
“Numerical simulations of geometrical and electromagnetic effects on the distributions of the magnetic induction, the electric field, the current density, the power loss density, and the hysteretic ac loss of a type-II superconductor strip exposed to an oscillating transverse magnetic field are performed by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of a vector potential approach. The underlying definition of the superconducting constituent makes use of a generalized “smoothed” Bean model of the critical state, which includes the field dependence of the induced current as well.

01) Of 26 children, 22 (84 %) achieved clinical remission; 20 (7

01). Of 26 children, 22 (84 %) achieved clinical remission; 20 (76 %) biochemical remission.

Fifteen (58 %) had early good endoscopic response (11 complete, 4 near complete MH) and 3/14 (21 %) had complete transmural remission of ileal Compound C CD (MRE-CD: 0-1). Early good endoscopic response was associated with reduced endoscopic confirmed relapse (53 vs. 100 %, p = 0.02), anti-TNF use (33 vs. 88 %, p = 0.01) and hospitalisation (40 vs. 88 %) at 1 year. EEN is effective for inducing early clinical, biochemical, mucosal and transmural remission. Early endoscopic remission improves outcomes at 1 year.”
“Background: The NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare but fatal cancer for which systematic testing of therapy options has never been performed. Methods: On the basis of disease biology, we compared the efficacy of the CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol (FP) with a panel of anticancer agents in NMC cell lines and mouse xenografts. Results: In vitro anthracyclines, topoisomerase inhibitors, and microtubule poisons were among

the most cytotoxic drug classes for NMC cells, while efficacy of the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 varied considerably between lines carrying different BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4)-NUT (nuclear protein in testis) translocations. Efficacy of FP was comparable to vincristine and doxorubicin, drugs that have been previously used in NMC patients. All three compounds showed significantly better activity than etoposide and vorinostat, agents that have also been used in NMC patients. Statins and antimetabolites demonstrated intermediate single-agent efficacy. In vivo, vincristine significantly inhibited tumour growth in two different NMC xenografts. BMS-777607 purchase Flavopiridol in vivo was significantly effective in one of the two NMC

xenograft Small Molecule Compound Library lines, demonstrating the biological heterogeneity of this disease. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that FP may be of benefit to a subset of patients with NMC, and warrant a continued emphasis on microtubule inhibitors, anthracyclines, and topoisomerase inhibitors as effective drug classes in this disease.”
“Background: Following primary rhinoplasty, the nasal tip may become wider on front view, possibly due to splaying of the lateral crura. Objectives: The authors describe a technique, the “supratip-plasty,” to create an all-cartilaginous supratip that resists splaying and postoperative broadening of the nasal tip complex. Methods: Thirteen consecutive primary rhinoplasty patients (10 women; 3 men) with broad nasal tips received a supratip-plasty (which preserved the cephalic part of the lateral crus, reducing it in size and securing it to the dorsal septum, resulting in a completely cartilaginous tip framework) and were followed for 11 to 17 months. Since the frontal tip width (TW) is relative to the frontal nasal base width (NBW), the TW/NBW ratio was contrasted to that of 19 unoperated aesthetically pleasing nasal tips. Results: Of the 13 cases, all but 1 were considered to have a good result.


“Background/aim Anti-VEGF treatment is the therapy of choi


“Background/aim Anti-VEGF treatment is the therapy of choice in age-related macular degeneration, and is also applied in diabetic macular oedema or retinal vein occlusion.

Recently, the fusion protein, aflibercept, has been approved for therapeutic use. In this study, we investigate the effects of aflibercept on primary RPE cells. Methods Primary selleck chemical RPE cells were prepared from freshly slaughtered pigs’ eyes. The impact of aflibercept on cell viability was investigated with MTT and trypan blue exclusion assay. The influence of aflibercept on wound healing was assessed with a scratch assay. Intracellular uptake of aflibercept was investigated in immunohistochemistry and its influence on phagocytosis with a phagocytosis assay using opsonised latex beads. Results Aflibercept displays no cytotoxicity on RPE cells but impairs its wound healing ability. It is taken up into RPE cells and can be intracellularly detected for at least 7 days. Intracellular aflibercept impairs the phagocytic capacity of RPE cells. Conclusions Aflibercept interferes with the physiology of RPE cells, as it is taken up into RPE cells, which is accompanied by a reduction

of the phagocytic ability. Additionally, it impairs the wound healing capacity of RPE cells. These effects on the physiology of RPE cells may indicate possible side effects.”
“Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) was originally isolated from human neutrophils and MK-2206 ic50 termed neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). However, the functions of LCN2 and the cell types that are primarily responsible for LCN2 production remain unclear. To address these issues, hepatocyte-specific Lcn2 knockout (Lcn2(Hep-/-)) mice were generated

and subjected to bacterial infection (with Klesbsiella pneumoniae or Escherichia coli) or partial hepatectomy (PHx). Studies of Lcn2(Hep-/-) mice revealed that hepatocytes contributed to 25% of the low basal serum level of LCN2 protein (approximate to 62 ng/mL) but were responsible for more than 90% of the highly elevated HKI-272 serum LCN2 protein level (approximate to 6,000 ng/mL) postinfection and more than 60% post-PHx (approximate to 700 ng/mL). Interestingly, both Lcn2(Hep-/-) and global Lcn2 knockout (Lcn2(-/-)) mice demonstrated comparable increases in susceptibility to infection with K. pneumoniae or E. coli. These mice also had increased enteric bacterial translocation from the gut to the mesenteric lymph nodes and exhibited reduced liver regeneration after PHx. Treatment with interleukin (IL)-6 stimulated hepatocytes to produce LCN2 in vitro and in vivo. Hepatocyte-specific ablation of the IL-6 receptor or Stat3, a major downstream effector of IL-6, markedly abrogated LCN2 elevation in vivo. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that STAT3 was recruited to the promoter region of the Lcn2 gene upon STAT3 activation by IL-6.