Here, we propose a new application of the flicker change detection task that could measure
object-in-scene memory days after single-trial exposures. In three experiments, participants searched for a changing object – or “”target”" – embedded within a scene as their eye movements were tracked. For new targets-in-scenes, the change is difficult to detect and requires extensive search. Once the target is found, however, the change becomes obvious. We reasoned that the decreased times required to find a target in a repeated scene would indicate memory for the target. In humans, targets were found faster when the targets-and-scenes were explicitly remembered than when they were forgotten, or had never been seen before. This led to faster repeated-trial compared to novel-trial search times. Based solely on repeated-trial this website search times, we were able to select distributions comprised of predominantly remembered or predominantly forgotten trials. Macaques exhibited the same repetition effects as humans, suggesting that remembered trials could be dissociated from novel or forgotten trials using the same procedures we established in humans. Finally, an anterograde amnesic patient with damage that included the medial temporal lobe (MTL) showed no search time differences, suggesting that memory revealed through search times Danusertib supplier on this task requires MTL
integrity. Together, these findings indicate that the time required to locate a changing object reveals object-in-scene memory over long retention intervals in humans and macaques.”
“OBJECTIVES: To assess the distribution LY2090314 cell line of dementia subtypes in Brazil using a population-based clinicopathological study.
METHOD: Brains from deceased individuals aged >= 50 years
old were collected after the next of kin signed an informed consent form and provided information through standardized questionnaires. Post-mortem clinical diagnoses were established in consensus meetings, and only cases with moderate or severe dementia or without cognitive impairment were included in the analysis. Immunohistochemical neuropathological examinations were performed following the universally accepted guidelines. A diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease was made when there were at least both a moderate density of neuritic plaques (Consortium to Establish a Register for Alzheimer’s disease B or C) and Braak stage III for neurofibrillary tangle distribution. For the diagnosis of vascular dementia, at least three zones or strategic areas had to be affected by infarcts, lacunae, or microinfarcts.
RESULTS: From 1,291 subjects, 113 cases were classified as having moderate or severe dementia, and 972 cases were free of cognitive impairment. The neuropathological diagnoses of the dementia sub-group were Alzheimer’s disease (35.4%), vascular dementia (21.2%), Alzheimer’s disease plus vascular dementia (13.3%), and other causes of dementia (30.1%).