This study analysed the effect of icariin on the expression of To

This study analysed the effect of icariin on the expression of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) which plays an important role in regulation of the innate immune response. Stimulation of Ana-1 murine macrophages with icariin induced a significant dose-dependent expression of TLR9, and its mRNA expression which increased from 3 h post-treatment was approximately fivefold that of DMSO-treated cells. Several molecules, such as myeloid differentiation factor 88, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 6, which are involved in the TLR9 downstream

signaling pathway, were also significantly up-regulated in response to icariin stimulation. Our findings demonstrated that icariin is able to induce the expression of TLR9. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley AZD6094 in vitro & Sons, Ltd.”
“Detection and individual quantification of oak wood ellagitannins in oak barrel aged red wine samples are difficult mainly due to their low levels and the similarity between their structures. In this work, a quantification

Pexidartinib clinical trial method using mass spectrometry has been developed and validated to quantify wine ellagitannins after sample fractionation with a previously reported method. The use of an internal standard is a requirement to correct mass signal variability. (-)-Gallocatechin, among the different tested compounds, was the only one that proved to be a suitable internal standard making possible the accurate and individual quantification of the main oak wood ellagitannins. The developed methodology has been used to detect and quantify these ellagitannins in different Spanish commercial wines, proving its usefulness.”
“Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder is a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatments this website of rheumatoid arthritis, swelling and pain. Two methyl salicylate glycosides, namely methyl benzoate-2-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6)-O-beta-D-gluco-pyranoside (J12122) and methyl benzoate-2-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-2)[ O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (J12123), are natural salicylic derivatives isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of J12122 and J12123 on LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells by measuring the production

of pro-inflammatory cytokines, accumulation of nitric oxide (NO), and level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results showed that both methyl salicylate glycosides dose-dependently inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and IL-6, respectively. Consistent with these observations, J12122 and J12123 significantly suppressed the accumulation of NO, with an inhibitory rate of 56.20% and 51.72% at 3.0 mu g/mL concentration, respectively. Furthermore, the two methyl salicylate glycosides reduced the level of ROS induced by LPS. These results showed that the isolated compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition the production pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO, and ROS.

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