Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate EBT i

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate EBT in asthmatic subjects compared to healthy controls after an exercise challenge test, and in subjects with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction compared to subjects without, and to compare with body temperatures. Methods: A total of 21 healthy controls and 20 asthmatics were included. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), EBT and oral, axillary and auricular temperatures were measured before and after an exercise challenge test. Results: FEV1% predicted (% p) was significantly lower in asthmatic subjects DM3189 compared to healthy controls at all time points after exercise. The largest drop in FEV1 % p correlated

with EBT after 5 Z-VAD-FMK supplier min. EBT increased markedly 5 min after exercise and remained high for at least 60 min. In asthmatics

whose FEV1 dropped by >10%, EBT was higher after 60 min compared to the remaining asthmatics. EBT correlated with oral temperature at all time points after exercise, with axillary temperature only at 15, 30 and 60 min, and not at all with auricular temperature. Conclusions: EBT is increased after exercise, and elevated EBT correlated with a drop in FEV1% p. The immediate increase in EBT did not differ between asthmatics and controls but remained elevated in the asthmatics whose FEV1 dropped by >10%, indicating a different vascular response. Copyright (V) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Bacterial biofilms play a major role in chronic orthopaedic infections. Recently, farnesol (an antifungal agent) h:is been shown to express antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. However, the effects of farnesol on the formation of bacterial biofilms on orthopaedic biomaterials and its effects on osteoblasts have not been investigated, to our knowledge, and are therefore the focus of this study.

Methods: Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus (Seattle 1945(GFPuvr)) were grown on titanium alloy discs. The effects of soluble farnesol on biofilm formation with or without gentamicin were examined with

fluorescence microscopy and in quantitative cultures. The effect of farnesol coated on titanium alloy discs was also investigated, as was the effect of the agent or MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells cultured CFTRinh-172 mw on titanium alloy discs.

Results: Soluble farnesol at a 30-mM concentration reduced the number of viable bacteria 10(4)-fold and completely inhibited biofilm formation. Low concentrations of soluble farnesol (0.03 to 3 mM) did not inhibit biofilm formation and did not potentiate the effect of a submaximal concentration of gentamicin. Dried farnesol on titanium alloy discs reduced the number of viable bacteria fiftyfold. The effect of farnesol on bacterial biofilm formation lasted for at least three days. Soluble farnesol added after the biofilm had already formed also reduced the final number of viable bacteria, by fifty-sixfold.

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