“Objective: Synkinetic facial movement after facial nerve

“Objective: Synkinetic facial movement after facial nerve regeneration is a well-documented phenomenon. Rarely, patients recovering from facial nerve injury

report feelings of auditory ringing, fullness, and a sensation of ear tightness as a result of stapedial muscle involvement. It is exceedingly rare for such synkinesis to produce perceivable MAPK inhibitor changes in hearing threshold. We report a unique case of stapedial synkinesis causing pure-tone changes in hearing threshold with activation of the facial musculature.

Patient: A single patient is presented who developed stapedial synkinesis after suboccipital resection of a unilateral acoustic neuroma.

Results: Despite facial nerve sparing, surgery resulted in House-Brackmann grade V/VI right facial nerve paralysis that improved to Grade III/VI after 7 months. Synkinesis developed that caused eye closure with puckering of the lips. Puckering of the lips likewise caused decreased hearing in the right ear, corresponding to a measured decrease of 10 dB in the PTA. Over the next several LY294002 concentration months, facial motion continued to improve, and hearing changes

became less bothersome, so no intervention was undertaken.

Conclusion: The changes presented in the hearing threshold fit within the classically described 15-dB attenuation provided by the stapedial reflex. Although no intervention was undertaken in this particular case, some patients with unremitting stapedial synkinesis might benefit from sectioning of the stapedial muscle. Thus, consideration

should be made for audiometric evaluation with and without facial muscle contraction Nepicastat in the evaluation of individuals with synkinetic facial movement.”
“Xanthosine is a catabolite of purine nucleotides. Our studies using excised tissues of various plant species indicate that xanthosine salvage is negligible and that xanthosine is catabolised predominantly via xanthine. A recent report using intact Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings (Riegler et al., 2011. New Phytol. 191, 349-359) showed that significant amounts of xanthosine were utilised for RNA synthesis. We report here similar, more detailed C-14-feeding experiments of xanthosine and xanthine using intact mungbean seedlings. Less than 3% of radioactivity from [8-C-14] xanthosine and 1% from [8-C-14] xanthine was incorporated into the RNA fraction; the rest of the radioactivity was incorporated into purine catabolites, including ureides, urea and CO2. Allopurinol, which is a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, markedly inhibited purine catabolism, and radioactivity from these two precursors was retained in xanthine. Even then, no significant salvage of xanthosine and xanthine was observed. Rapid catabolism and slow salvage of xanthosine and xanthine appear to be inherent properties of many plant species. (C) 2011 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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