This finding is

in agreement with other B races of B bra

This finding is

in agreement with other B races of B. braunii, indicating the Berkeley strain is a true B race of B. braunii. To better understand molecular aspects of B. braunii, we obtained the Berkeley strain genome size as a first step in genome sequencing. Using flow cytometry, we determined the B. braunii Berkeley genome size to be 166.2 ± 2.2 Mb. We also estimated the GC content of the Berkeley strain as 54.4 ± 1.2% for expressed gene sequences. “
“Chlamydomonas raudensis  H. Ettl (UWO 241) is a psychrophilic green alga endemic to Lake Bonney, Antarctica. The objective of this study was to investigate the response of UWO 241 to incubation at 24°C, a temperature close to optimum for related mesophilic species. Using chl a fluorescence analysis, shifting cells from a growth temperature of 10°C–24°C resulted in a decline in PSII photochemical learn more efficiency with light energy being directed away from photochemistry and toward dissipative pathways. Using the SYTOX Green assay, it was determined that UWO 241 cells die when incubated at 24°C under growth irradiance with a half-time of 34.9 h. The role of light in cell death was minor as cell death occurred in darkness at 24°C with a half-time

of 43.7 h. To examine the plasticity of UWO 241 to temperature stress, 10°C-grown cells were shifted to 24°C for 12 h and then returned to 10°C to recover. The 12 h incubation at 24°C, which resulted in <10% cell death, led to declines in both light-saturated rates of photosynthesis and respiration, PSII photochemistry and energy partitioning, and changes Torin 1 to transcript abundances—those associated with the light-harvesting protein of PSII and ferredoxin declining rapidly, whereas transcripts of specific heat-shock proteins (HSPs) increased. Within 24–48 h of being transferred back to 10°C, all parameters returned to levels occurring

in 10°C-grown cells. This research shows, for Resveratrol the first time, that 24°C is a temperature that is lethal to UWO 241, and yet this organism displays considerable physiological and molecular plasticity. “
“The ability of harmful algal species to form dense, nearly monospecific blooms remains an ecological and evolutionary puzzle. We hypothesized that predation interacts with estuarine salinity gradients to promote blooms of Heterosigma akashiwo (Y. Hada) Y. Hada ex Y. Hara et M. Chihara, a cosmopolitan toxic raphidophyte. Specifically, H. akashiwo’s broad salinity tolerance appears to provide a refuge from predation that enhances the net growth of H. akashiwo populations through several mechanisms. (1) Contrasting salinity tolerance of predators and prey. Estuarine H. akashiwo isolates from the west coast of North America grew rapidly at salinities as low as six, and distributed throughout experimental salinity gradients to salinities as low as three. In contrast, survival of most protistan predator species was restricted to salinities >15. (2) H.

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