Induction of MMP-1 occurs by signaling from the alpha(2)beta(1) i

Induction of MMP-1 occurs by signaling from the alpha(2)beta(1) integrin in contact with dermal fibrillar type I collagen, and the activity of MMP-1 is required for human keratinocytes to migrate on collagen. Thus, MMP-1 serves a critical role in the repair of damaged human skin. Here, we evaluated the mechanisms

controlling MMP-1 expression in primary human keratinocytes from neonatal foreskin and adult female skin. Our results demonstrate that shortly following contact with type I collagen extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were markedly activated, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation remained at basal levels. ERK inhibition markedly blocked collagen-stimulated MMP-1 expression in keratinocytes. In contrast, inhibiting p38 or JNK pathways had no effect on MMP-1 production. Moreover, investigating the role of Rho GTPases Rabusertib mw revealed that Cdc42 attenuates MMP-1 expression by suppressing ERK activity. Thus, our data indicate that injured keratinocytes induce MMP-1 expression through ERK activation, and this process is negatively regulated by Cdc42 activity.”
“AimTo evaluate the effect of rotational speed on cyclic fatigue of Mtwo

nickel-titanium files. MethodologyA total of 120 new Selleckchem MEK inhibitor Mtwo rotary instruments sizes 10, 0.04 taper; selleck 15, 0.05 taper; 20, 0.05 taper; and 25, 0.06 taper were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of the rotational speed used to shape nine standardized simulated canals: group A=350rpm; group B=250rpm; group C=150rpm. Each group consisted of 40 instruments, 10 for every size. The average preparation time (in seconds) and the average correlated numbers

of cycles to instrument (NCI) the nine standardized canals were recorded for each file. The resistance to cyclic fatigue was determined by counting numbers of cycles to failure (NCF) with a rotational speed of 300rpm in a 60 degrees curve with a 5-mm radius. Data were analysed by two-way anova. ResultsPreparation time was significantly longer at 150rpm than at 250 or 350rpm. The average number of cycles needed for each file to instrument nine standardized canals was significantly higher at 350 and 250rpm, than at 150rpm. There were no significant differences in the NCF (P bigger than 0.05) between A, B and C groups for instruments of the same size. ConclusionsSpeed did not affect the cyclic fatigue of Mtwo instruments with the same size and taper. Preparation time was shorter at 350 or 250rpm rather than at 150rpm. However, there was no significant difference between 350 and 250rpm rotational speed, neither in the preparation time of simulated canals nor in the resistance to fatigue fracture.”

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