During the past half century, it was recognized that the impact o

During the past half century, it was recognized that the impact of high As exposure on human health is much more complicated than originally anticipated. Chronic As exposure resulted

in infamous blackfoot disease, which is unique to As endemic areas in Taiwan, and various diseases including cancers and non-cancers. Although the potential-biological outcomes have been well-documented, the pathomechanisms leading from As exposure to occurrence and development of the diseases remain largely unclear. One of the major obstacles that hindered further understanding Bafilomycin A1 datasheet regarding the adverse health effect resulting from chronic As exposure is documentation of cumulative As exposure from the distant past, which remains difficult as the present technologies mostly document relatively recent As exposure. Furthermore, the susceptibility to As exposure appears to differ between different ethnic groups and individuals and is modified by lifestyle factors including smoking habits and BI 6727 inhibitor nutrition status. No consensus data has yet been reached even after comparing the study results obtained from different parts of the world focusing on associations between human As toxicity and genetic polymorphisms in terms of cellular detoxification enzymes, tumor suppressor proteins,

and DNA repair pathway. With the availability of the new powerful “”OMIC”" technologies, it may now be possible to gain new path-breaking insights regarding this important environmental health issue. The lessons learned from the past half-century placed Taiwan in an experienced position to actively participate in the international collaborative projects using these novel technologies

and standardized methods. Copyright (C) 2011, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“The effects of different surfactants on the properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polypropylene (MWCNT/PP) nanocomposites prepared by a melt mixing method have been investigated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (NaDDBS) were used as a means PCI-34051 chemical structure of noncovalent functionalization of MWCNTs to help them to be dispersed uniformly into the PP matrix. The effects of these surfactant-treated MWCNTs on morphological, rheological, thermal, crystalline, mechanical, and electrical properties of MWCNT/PP composites were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, rheometry, tensile, and electrical conductivity tests. It was found that the surfactant-treatment and micromixing resulted in a great improvement in the state of dispersion of MWCNTs in the polymer matrix, leading to a significant enhancement of Young’s modulus and tensile strength of the composites. For example, with the addition of only 2 wt % of SDS-treated and NaDDBS-treated MWCNTs, the Young’s modulus of PP increased by 61.1 and 86.1%, respectively. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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