The litterbag studies ran over 22 months The

The litterbag studies ran over 22 months. The PD0325901 solubility dmso decomposition rate constants (k) of the temperate forest species ranged from k = 0.5 for Fagus to k = 1.5-2 for all

other tree species. In Fagus, k was closely negatively correlated with the thickness of the litter layer and positively correlated with soil pH and isopod abundance. k was significantly higher in the mixed species stands (except for Carpinus and Fraxinus) and was positively correlated with earthworm abundance. Over the whole incubation time, nutrient amount and release rates of N, P, K, Ca and Mg as well as C-related ratios showed significant differences between tree species but no consistent differences among the diversity levels. Initial C-related nutrient ratios of the leaf litter and abundance of mesofauna and macrofauna were correlated with the length of time lag before nutrient release. We conclude that the mere number of tree species is not the main driver of nutrient release and decomposition processes, but that selleck key groups of the decomposer fauna as well as the characteristic traits of the individual tree species are decisive. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

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“The recent proposal by Douglas and Savulescu for an ethics of knowledge provokes a renewed consideration of an enduring issue. Yet, the concept raises significant challenges for procedural and substantive justice. Indeed, the operationalisation of ‘an ethics of knowledge’ could be as alarming as what it seeks to prevent. While we can acknowledge that there is, and surely always will be, potential for misuse of beneficial science and technology, a contemplated conception of what we ought to not know, devise or disseminate sets before us an enormously complex task. This essay challenges an ethics of knowledge to respond to concerns of procedural and substantive justice. While the concept has a certain appeal, it does not appear to adequately address certain fundamental issues selleckchem as it is currently

presented. Here, the author invites consideration of two primary points: (1) who should decide, based on whose interests? and (2) could such an exercise actually be effective in achieving its goal?”
“The paper presents a new method of conditional combination of quantum systems that takes into account the external environmental conditions. As a practical example of the method presented here, the well-known Bell states are modeled as conditional combination of two q-bits. Analogous approach can be applied in modeling conditional combinations of two and more quantum system sequences.”
“Background: Theileria spp. are tick transmitted protozoa that can infect large and small ruminants causing disease and economic losses. Diagnosis of infections is often challenging, as parasites can be difficult to detect and identify microscopically and serology is unreliable.

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