Of those with two or more episodes, 42% had all episodes in the s

Of those with two or more episodes, 42% had all episodes in the same calendar year. In each year, 99% of enrolled and eligible patients had no episode; among those with an episode, 87% had just one episode. Among all episodes of bacteraemia, 51% were ‘bacteraemia,

NOS’, 16% were S. aureus, 6.5% were Streptococcus species, 5.4% were other Staphylococcus, 5.3% were Escherichia coli, 4.1% were Streptococcus pneumonia, GSK2118436 molecular weight 2.3% were Pseudomonas and 6.5% were other Gram-negative rod species. Twenty episodes had more than one organism listed, and another 32 involved Salmonella or Listeria. In a supplemental analysis, microbiology data were hand-abstracted at one of the largest study sites. Evaluation of 184 ‘bacteraemia, NOS’ cases revealed that 69 (38%) were S. aureus, 33 (18%) were other Staphylococcus, 24 (13%) were S. pneumoniae, 9 (4.9%) were E. coli and 7 (3.8%) were Streptococcus species. Among the cases of S. aureus bacteraemia, 42 (61%) were MRSA. The rate of bacteraemia fluctuated unsystematically from 2000 find more to 2008 (Table 3), with an incidence of 15.1 per 1000 PY in 2000, a nadir of 10.7 per 1000 PY in 2002, and then an increase to 15.0 per 1000 PY in 2004, the incidence remaining relatively stable over the remaining years. The drop in the incidence rate in 2002 occurred within each of the four sites

with the largest total number of episodes, and is thus not an artefact of special circumstances at one provider. Figure 1 shows the yearly incidence rates, stratified

by type of organism. The proportion of episodes caused by S. aureus dropped between 2005 and 2008, but the proportion of ‘unspecified’ episodes increased. Results of bivariate and multivariate analyses were broadly similar, as were the results of logistic and negative binomial models (Table 4). In the multivariate PLEKHB2 logistic regression model, the odds of bacteraemia in 2002 were significantly lower than in 2000 [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57, 0.88], but the odds in 2005 and later were significantly higher (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03, 1.54 for 2005; AOR 1.29, 95% CI 105, 1.58 for 2006; AOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.20, 1.82 for 2007; AOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.08, 1.64 for 2008). (The difference between odds in 2007 and 2008 was not statistically significant: χ2=1.22, df=1.) The significant year effects in the multivariate analysis contrast with nonsignificant effects in the bivariate analysis. This difference arises from the associations among bacteraemia, year, CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA. Over time, the median CD4 count rose from 325 to 402 cells/μL, and the median HIV-1 RNA dropped from 2555 to 400 copies/mL. Higher CD4 cell counts and lower HIV-1 RNA were each associated with lower odds of bacteraemia. However, when CD4 and HIV-1 RNA were controlled, an increase in the likelihood of bacteraemia after 2004 was apparent.

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