However, its measurement is not standardised We review the diffe

However, its measurement is not standardised. We review the different methods used to

measure AAA maximum diameter, with ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT).

Methods: A review of maximum diameter measurement methods with US and CT was performed, focussing on screening, surveillance before repair and decision for intervention. Diameter measurement methodology was described according to four parameters: plane of acquisition, axis of measurement, position of callipers and selected diameter. A quality score to evaluate methodology descriptions was defined (plane, axis, callipers LDC000067 in vivo placement and selected diameter), ranging from 0 (worst) to 4 (best).

Results: Review showed a wide range of definitions and practices. The mean value of the quality score was 2.52 in screening studies, 1.66 in guidelines for screening, 2.81 in follow-up studies and 1.63 in studies describing decision Dinaciclib cost for intervention.

Conclusion: To improve the efficiency of AAA management (in screening programmes, follow-up and decision for intervention), and enable comparison between future studies, a standardised methodology for AAA maximum diameter measurement is necessary. Until such a consensus is reached, publications should at least clearly report the method of measurement. (C) 2012 European Society for Vascular

Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: In cometabolic transformation of 4-chlorophenol (4-cp) in the presence of phenol and sodium glutamate (SG), a new biphasic growth pattern has been reported. This study investigates AZD2014 clinical trial the physiological changes of Pseudomonas putida P8 during the biphasic growth by means of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and

MALDI-TOF analyses.

RESULTS: A total of 49 protein spots were selected and identified in the 2-DE gels from P. putida P8 grown on a mixed substrate containing 200 mg L(-1) of phenol, 200 mg L(-1) of 4-cp and 1000 mg L(-1) SG. Among them, 16 protein spots were found differentially expressed in the two exponential growth phases during the biphasic growth, including six catabolic enzymes (DmpC, DmpD, DmpE, DmpF, DmpG and AspA) for substrate utilization. The expression of other proteins involved in detoxification and stress responses, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and environmental information processing as well as a multifunctional xenobiotic reductase (XenA) was quantitatively analyzed and discussed.

CONCLUSION: The expression levels of the identified catabolic enzymes during growth in the two growth phases correlated well with the substrate utilization patterns observed in previous kinetics studies. Furthermore, the results show that cells growing on a mixture of aromatic substrates undergo significant physiological changes.

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