Additional covariates included demographics and co-morbidities

Additional covariates included demographics and co-morbidities.

Results. Of the

5,549 (97.3%) eligible participants, 1,991 (35.9%) reported pain of moderate intensity or greater, and 1,028 (18.5%) were cognitively impaired. Among cognitively impaired participants, moderate or greater pain report was associated with functional impairment odds ratio (OR) = 1.74 (1.15, 2.62; P<0.01), depressed mood OR = 1.69 (1.18, 2.44; P<0.01), and lower self-rated health OR = 2.35 (1.69, 3.30; P<0.01). Among cognitively intact participants, pain report was similarly associated with functional impairment OR = 1.40 (1.20,1.63); JPH203 price P<0.01), depressed mood OR = 1.88 (1.59,2.23; P<0.01), and lower self-rated health OR = 2.34 (1.94,2.82; P<0.01).

Conclusions. Pain self-report in both cognitively intact and impaired community-dwelling persons is associated with a similar multidimensional experience. These findings confirm the need for comprehensive evaluation of pain and related outcomes in all older adults, with selleck inhibitor appropriate pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic management.”
“Positron emission tomography (PET) images usually suffer from poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to the high level of noise and low spatial resolution, which adversely affect its performance for lesion detection and quantification. The complementary information present in high-resolution anatomical images from multi-modality imaging systems could

potentially be used to improve the ability to detect and/or quantify lesions. However, previous methods that use anatomical priors usually require matched organ/lesion boundaries. In this study, we investigated the use of anatomical information to suppress noise in PET images while preserving

both quantitative accuracy and the amplitude of prominent signals that do ICG-001 ic50 not have corresponding boundaries on computerized tomography (CT). The proposed approach was realized through a postreconstruction filter based on the nonlocal means (NLM) filter, which reduces noise by computing the weighted average of voxels based on the similarity measurement between patches of voxels within the image. Anatomical knowledge obtained from CT was incorporated to constrain the similarity measurement within a subset of voxels. In contrast to other methods that use anatomical priors, the actual number of neighboring voxels and weights used for smoothing were determined from a robust measurement on PET images within the subset. Thus, the proposed approach can be robust to signal mismatches between PET and CT. A 3-D search scheme was also investigated for the volumetric PET/CT data. The proposed anatomically guided median nonlocal means filter (AMNLM) was first evaluated using a computer phantom and a physical phantom to simulate realistic but challenging situations where small lesions are located in homogeneous regions, which can be detected on PET but not on CT.

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